آرنۍ غورنۍ پرانيستل

زرکونيوم

(له Zirconium نه مخ گرځېدلی)

زرکونيوم (په انگرېزي: Zirconium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Zr سمبول او ۴۰ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

Zirconium,  40Zr
Zirconium crystal bar and 1cm3 cube.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /zɜːrˈkniəm/
zur-KOH-ni-əm
Appearance silvery white
Zirconium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Ti

Zr

Hf
yttriumzirconiumniobium
اټومي شمیره (Z) 40
گروپ, پیریود group 4, period 5
بلاک d-block
Element category   transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration [Kr] 4d2 5s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 10, 2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 2128 K ​(1855 °C, ​3371 °F)
يشنا ټکی 4650 K ​(4377 °C, ​7911 °F)
Density near r.t. 6.52 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 5.8 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 14 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 591 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 25.36 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2639 2891 3197 3575 4053 4678
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2, 1, −2[۲] ​(an amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.33
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 640.1 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1270 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2218 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 160 pm
Covalent radius 175±7 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close-packed crystal structure for zirconium
Speed of sound thin rod 3800 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 5.7 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 22.6 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 421 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[۳]
Young's modulus 88 GPa
Shear modulus 33 GPa
Bulk modulus 91.1 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.34
Mohs hardness 5.0
Vickers hardness 820–1800 MPa
Brinell hardness 638–1880 MPa
CAS Number 7440-67-7
History
Naming after zircon, zargun زرگون meaning "gold-colored".
Discovery Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1789)
First isolation Jöns Jakob Berzelius (1824)
Main isotopes of zirconium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2 کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay3

90Zr 51.45% stable
91Zr 11.22% stable
92Zr 17.15% stable
93Zr trace 1.53×106 y β 93Nb
94Zr 17.38% stable
96Zr 2.80% 2.0×1019 y[۴] ββ 96Mo
| references | in Wikidata

مشخصاتسمول

تاریخچهسمول

مرکباتسمول

د استعمال ځایونهسمول

سرچينېسمول

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. . Zirconium: zirconium(I) fluoride compound data. OpenMOPAC.net
  3. Lide, D. R., ed (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. http://web.archive.org/web/20110303222309/http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering/elementmagn.pdf. 
  4. . Adopted Double Beta Decay Data. National Nuclear Data Center

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