آرنۍ غورنۍ پرانيستل

ساماريوم

(له Samarium نه مخ گرځېدلی)

ساماريوم (په انگرېزي: Samarium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Sm سمبول او ۶۲ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

Samarium,  62Sm
Samarium-2.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /səˈmɛəriəm/
sə-MAIR-ee-əm
Appearance silvery white
Samarium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


Sm

Pu
promethiumsamariumeuropium
اټومي شمیره (Z) 62
گروپ, پیریود group n/a, period 6
بلاک f-block
Element category   lanthanide
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f6 6s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 24, 8, 2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 1345 K ​(1072 °C, ​1962 °F)
يشنا ټکی 2173 K ​(1900 °C, ​3452 °F)
Density near r.t. 7.52 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 7.16 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 8.62 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 192 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 29.54 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1001 1106 1240 (1421) (1675) (2061)
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2, 1 ​(a mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.17
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 544.5 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1070 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2260 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 180 pm
Covalent radius 198±8 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurerhombohedral
Rhombohedral crystal structure for samarium
Speed of sound thin rod 2130 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion (r.t.) (α, poly) 12.7 µm/(m·K)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 13.3 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) (α, poly) 0.940 µΩ·m
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[۲]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) +1860.0·10−6 cm3/mol (291 K)[۳]
Young's modulus α form: 49.7 GPa
Shear modulus α form: 19.5 GPa
Bulk modulus α form: 37.8 GPa
Poisson ratio α form: 0.274
Vickers hardness 410–440 MPa
Brinell hardness 440–600 MPa
CAS Number 7440-19-9
History
Naming after the mineral samarskite (itself named after Vasili Samarsky-Bykhovets)
Discovery and first isolation Lecoq de Boisbaudran (1879)
Main isotopes of samarium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
144Sm 3.08% stable
145Sm syn 340 d ε 145Pm
146Sm syn 6.8×107 y α 142Nd
147Sm 15.00% 1.06×1011 y α 143Nd
148Sm 11.25% 7×1015 y α 144Nd
149Sm 13.82% stable
150Sm 7.37% stable
151Sm syn 90 y β 151Eu
152Sm 26.74% stable
153Sm syn 46.284 h β 153Eu
154Sm 22.74% stable
| references | in Wikidata

مشخصاتسمول

تاریخچهسمول

مرکباتسمول

د استعمال ځایونهسمول

سرچينېسمول

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Lide, D. R., ed (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. http://web.archive.org/web/20110303222309/http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering/elementmagn.pdf. 
  3. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 

  دا ليکنه نابشپړه ده، تاسې ددې ليکنې په بشپړولو کې د ويکيپېډيا سره مرسته کولای شئ.