آرنۍ غورنۍ پرانيستل

سره زر

(له Gold نه مخ گرځېدلی)

سره زر (په انگرېزي: Gold) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Au سمبول او v۹ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

Gold,  79Au
Gold-crystals.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈɡld/
GOHLD
Appearance metallic yellow
Gold په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Ag

Au

Rg
platinumgoldmercury
اټومي شمیره (Z) 79
گروپ, پیریود group 11, period 6
بلاک d-block
Element category   transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱][۲]
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 1337.33 K ​(1064.18 °C, ​1947.52 °F)
يشنا ټکی 3243 K ​(2970 °C, ​5378 °F)
Density near r.t. 19.30 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 17.31 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 12.55 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 342 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 25.418 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1646 1814 2021 2281 2620 3078
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 5, 3, 2, 1, −1, −2, −3 ​(an amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.54
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 890.1 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1980 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 144 pm
Covalent radius 136±6 pm
Van der Waals radius 166 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
Face centered cubic crystal structure for gold
Speed of sound thin rod 2030 m/s (at r.t.)
Thermal expansion 14.2 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 318 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 22.14 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[۳]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) −28.0·10−6 cm3/mol (at 296 K)[۴]
Tensile strength 120 MPa
Young's modulus 79 GPa
Shear modulus 27 GPa
Bulk modulus 180 GPa[۵]
Poisson ratio 0.4
Mohs hardness 2.5
Vickers hardness 188–216 MPa
Brinell hardness 188–245 MPa
CAS Number 7440-57-5
History
Naming from Latin aurum, meaning gold
Discovery In the Middle East (before 6000 BCE)
Main isotopes of gold
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
195Au syn 186.10 d ε 195Pt

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

197Au 100% stable
198Au syn 2.69517 d β 198Hg
199Au syn 3.169 d β 199Hg
| references | in Wikidata

مشخصاتسمول

تاریخچهسمول

مرکباتسمول

د استعمال ځایونهسمول

سرچينېسمول

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. . Standard Atomic Weights 2013. Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights
  3. Lide, D. R., ed (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. http://web.archive.org/web/20110303222309/http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering/elementmagn.pdf. 
  4. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 
  5. Kelly, P.F. (2015). Properties of Materials. CRC Press. p. 355. ISBN 978-1-4822-0624-1. http://books.google.com/books?id=gSncBQAAQBAJ&pg=PT355. 

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