آرنۍ غورنۍ پرانيستل

سېريوم

(له Cerium نه مخ گرځېدلی)

سېريوم (په انگرېزي: Cerium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Ce سمبول او ۵۸ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

Cerium,  58Ce
Cerium2.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈsɪəriəm/
Appearance silvery white
Cerium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


Ce

Th
lanthanumceriumpraseodymium
اټومي شمیره (Z) 58
گروپ, پیریود group n/a, period 6
بلاک f-block
Element category   lanthanide
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f1 5d1 6s2[۲]
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 19, 9, 2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 1068 K ​(795 °C, ​1463 °F)
يشنا ټکی 3716 K ​(3443 °C, ​6229 °F)
Density near r.t. 6.770 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 6.55 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 5.46 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 398 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 26.94 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1992 2194 2442 2754 3159 3705
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2, 1 ​(a mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.12
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 534.4 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1050 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 1949 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radius empirical: 181.8 pm
Covalent radius 204±9 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structuredouble hexagonal close-packed (dhcp)
Double hexagonal close packed crystal structure for cerium

β-Ce
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for cerium

γ-Ce
Speed of sound thin rod 2100 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion γ, poly: 6.3 µm/(m·K) (at r.t.)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 11.3 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity β, poly: 828 nΩ·m (at r.t.)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[۳]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) (β) +2450.0·10−6 cm3/mol (293 K)[۴]
Young's modulus γ form: 33.6 GPa
Shear modulus γ form: 13.5 GPa
Bulk modulus γ form: 21.5 GPa
Poisson ratio γ form: 0.24
Mohs hardness 2.5
Vickers hardness 210–470 MPa
Brinell hardness 186–412 MPa
CAS Number 7440-45-1
History
Naming after dwarf planet Ceres, itself named after Roman deity of agriculture Ceres
Discovery Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jakob Berzelius, Wilhelm Hisinger (1803)
First isolation Carl Gustaf Mosander (1838)
Main isotopes of cerium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
134Ce syn 3.16 d ε 134La
136Ce 0.186% stable
138Ce 0.251% stable
139Ce syn 137.640 d ε 139La
140Ce 88.449% stable
141Ce syn 32.501 d β 141Pr
142Ce 11.114% stable
143Ce syn 33.039 d β 143Pr
144Ce syn 284.893 d β 144Pr
| references | in Wikidata

مشخصاتسمول

تاریخچهسمول

مرکباتسمول

د استعمال ځایونهسمول

سرچينېسمول

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Ground levels and ionization energies for the neutral atoms, NIST
  3. Lide, D. R., ed (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. http://web.archive.org/web/20110303222309/http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering/elementmagn.pdf. 
  4. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 

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