آرنۍ غورنۍ پرانيستل

هولميوم

(له Holmium نه مخ گرځېدلی)

هولميوم (په انگرېزي: Holmium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Ho سمبول او ۶v اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

Holmium,  67Ho
Holmium2.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈhəʊlmiəm/
HOHL-mee-əm
Appearance silvery white
Holmium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


Ho

Es
dysprosiumholmiumerbium
اټومي شمیره (Z) 67
گروپ, پیریود group n/a, period 6
بلاک f-block
Element category   lanthanide
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f11 6s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 29, 8, 2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 1734 K ​(1461 °C, ​2662 °F)
يشنا ټکی 2873 K ​(2600 °C, ​4712 °F)
Density near r.t. 8.79 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 8.34 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 17.0 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 251 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 27.15 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1432 1584 (1775) (2040) (2410) (2964)
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 3, 2, 1 ​(a basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.23
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 581.0 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1140 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2204 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 176 pm
Covalent radius 192±7 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for holmium
Speed of sound thin rod 2760 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion poly: 11.2 µm/(m·K) (at r.t.)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 16.2 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity poly: 814 nΩ·m (at r.t.)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic
Young's modulus 64.8 GPa
Shear modulus 26.3 GPa
Bulk modulus 40.2 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.231
Vickers hardness 410–600 MPa
Brinell hardness 500–1250 MPa
CAS Number 7440-60-0
History
Discovery Jacques-Louis Soret (1878)
Main isotopes of holmium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
163Ho syn 4570 y ε 163Dy
164Ho syn 29 min ε 164Dy
165Ho 100% stable
166Ho syn 26.763 h β 166Er
167Ho syn 3.1 h β 167Er
| references | in Wikidata

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د استعمال ځایونهسمول

سرچينېسمول

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 

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