آرنۍ غورنۍ پرانيستل

کوبالټ

(له Cobalt نه مخ گرځېدلی)

کوبالټ (په انگرېزي: Cobalt) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Co سمبول او ۲v اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

Cobalt,  27Co
Kobalt electrolytic and 1cm3 cube.jpg
electrolytically refined cobalt chips
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈkbɒlt/[۱]
KOH-bolt
Appearance hard lustrous bluish gray metal
Cobalt په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


Co

Rh
ironcobaltnickel
اټومي شمیره (Z) 27
گروپ, پیریود group 9, period 4
بلاک d-block
Element category   transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۲]
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d7 4s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 15, 2
فزیکي خواص
Color metallic gray
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 1768 K ​(1495 °C, ​2723 °F)
يشنا ټکی 3200 K ​(2927 °C, ​5301 °F)
Density near r.t. 8.90 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 8.86 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 16.06 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 377 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 24.81 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1790 1960 2165 2423 2755 3198
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states −3, −1, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5[۳] ​(an amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.88
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 760.4 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1648 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 3232 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radius empirical: 125 pm
Covalent radius Low spin: 126±3 pm
High spin: 150±7 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for cobalt
Speed of sound thin rod 4720 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 13.0 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 100 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 62.4 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering ferromagnetic
Young's modulus 209 GPa
Shear modulus 75 GPa
Bulk modulus 180 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.31
Mohs hardness 5.0
Vickers hardness 1043 MPa
Brinell hardness 470–3000 MPa
CAS Number 7440-48-4
History
Discovery and first isolation Georg Brandt (1735)
Main isotopes of cobalt
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
56Co syn 77.27 d ε 56Fe
57Co syn 271.79 d ε 57Fe
58Co syn 70.86 d ε 58Fe
59Co 100% stable
60Co syn 5.2714 y β, γ 60Ni
| references | in Wikidata

مشخصاتسمول

تاریخچهسمول

مرکباتسمول

د استعمال ځایونهسمول

سرچينېسمول

  1. Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition 1989.
  2. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  3. کينډۍ:Greenwood&Earnshaw2nd

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