آرنۍ غورنۍ پرانيستل

توريوم

(له Thorium نه مخ گرځېدلی)

توريوم (په انگرېزي: Thorium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Th سمبول او ۹۰ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

Thorium,  90Th
Thorium sample 0.1g.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈθɔəriəm/
THAWR-ee-əm
Appearance silvery, often with black tarnish
Thorium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Ce

Th

(Uqq)
actiniumthoriumprotactinium
اټومي شمیره (Z) 90
گروپ, پیریود group n/a, period 7
بلاک f-block
Element category   actinide
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration [Rn] 6d2 7s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 2023 K ​(1750 °C, ​3182 °F)
يشنا ټکی 5061 K ​(4788 °C, ​8650 °F)
Density near r.t. 11.7 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 13.81 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporisation 514 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 26.230 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2633 2907 3248 3683 4259 5055
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2, 1 ​(a weakly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.3
Ionisation energies
  • 1st: 587 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1110 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 1930 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 179.8 pm
Covalent radius 206±6 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structureface-centred cubic (fcc)
Facecentredcubic crystal structure for thorium
Speed of sound thin rod 2490 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 11.0 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 54.0 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 157 nΩ·m (at 0 °C)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[۲]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) 132.0·10−6 cm3/mol (293 K)[۳]
Young's modulus 79 GPa
Shear modulus 31 GPa
Bulk modulus 54 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.27
Mohs hardness 3.0
Vickers hardness 295–685 MPa
Brinell hardness 390–1500 MPa
CAS Number 7440-29-1
History
Naming after Thor, the Norse god of thunder
Discovery Jöns Jakob Berzelius (1829)
Main isotopes of thorium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
227Th trace 18.68 d α 223Ra
228Th trace 1.9116 y α 224Ra
229Th trace 7917 y α 225Ra
230Th 0.02% 75400 y α 226Ra
231Th trace 25.5 h β 231Pa
232Th 99.98% 1.405×1010 y α 228Ra
234Th trace 24.1 d β 234Pa
| references | in Wikidata

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سرچينېسمول

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Lide, D. R., ed (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). CRC Press. p. 4-135. ISBN 978-0-8493-0486-6. http://web.archive.org/web/20110303222309/http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering/elementmagn.pdf. 
  3. Weast, R. (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. p. E110. ISBN 978-0-8493-0464-4. 

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