پولونيوم

(له Polonium نه مخ گرځېدلی)

پولونيوم (په انگرېزي: Polonium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Po سمبول او ۸۴ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

Polonium,  84Po
دوتنه:Polonium.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /poʊ-ˈlniəm/
po-LOH-nee-əm
Allotropesα, β
Appearancesilvery
Polonium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Te

Po

Lv
bismuthpoloniumastatine
اټومي شمیره (Z)84
گروپ, پیریودgroup 16 (chalcogens), period 6
بلاکp-block
Element category  post-transition metal, but this status is disputed
Mass number209 (most stable isotope)
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى527 K ​(254 °C, ​489 °F)
يشنا ټکی1235 K ​(962 °C, ​1764 °F)
Density near r.t.alpha: 9.196 g/cm3
beta: 9.398 g/cm3
Heat of fusionca. 13 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization102.91 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity26.4 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) (846) 1003 1236
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states6, 5,[۱] 4, 2, −2 ​(an amphoteric oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.0
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 812.1 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 168 pm
Covalent radius140±4 pm
Van der Waals radius197 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurecubic
Cubic crystal structure for polonium
Cubic crystal structure for polonium

α-Po
Crystal structurerhombohedral
Rhombohedral crystal structure for polonium
Rhombohedral crystal structure for polonium

β-Po
Thermal expansion23.5 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه20 W/(m·K) (?)
Electrical resistivityα: 0.40 µΩ·m (at 0 °C)
Magnetic orderingnonmagnetic
CAS Number7440-08-6
History
Namingafter Script error: The function "lang" does not exist., Latin for Poland, homeland of Marie Curie
DiscoveryPierre and Marie Curie (1898)
First isolationWilly Marckwald (1902)
Main isotopes of polonium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2 کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

210Po trace 138.376 d α 206Pb
| references | in Wikidata

مشخصات سمول

تاریخچه سمول

مرکبات سمول

د استعمال ځایونه سمول

سرچينې سمول

  1. Thayer, John S. (2010). "Relativistic Effects and the Chemistry of the Heavier Main Group Elements": 78. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-9975-5_2. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (لارښود); Cite journal requires |journal= (لارښود)

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