آرنۍ غورنۍ پرانيستل

سېلېنيوم

(له Selenium نه مخ گرځېدلی)

سېلېنيوم (په انگرېزي: Selenium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Se سمبول او ۳۴ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

Selenium,  34Se
SeBlackRed.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /sɪˈlniəm/
SI-LEE-NEE-əm
Appearance black, red, and gray (not pictured) allotropes
Selenium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
S

Se

Te
arsenicseleniumbromine
اټومي شمیره (Z) 34
گروپ, پیریود group 16 (chalcogens), period 4
بلاک p-block
Element category   polyatomic nonmetal, sometimes considered a metalloid
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p4
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 6
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 494 K ​(221 °C, ​430 °F)
يشنا ټکی 958 K ​(685 °C, ​1265 °F)
Density near r.t. gray: 4.81 g/cm3
alpha: 4.39 g/cm3
vitreous: 4.28 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 3.99 g/cm3
Critical point 1766 K, 27.2 MPa
Heat of fusion gray: 6.69 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 95.48 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 25.363 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 500 552 617 704 813 958
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1,[۲] −1, −2 ​(a strongly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.55
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 941.0 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 2045 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2973.7 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 120 pm
Covalent radius 120±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 190 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurehexagonal
Hexagonal crystal structure for selenium
Speed of sound thin rod 3350 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion amorphous: 37 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه amorphous: 0.519 W/(m·K)
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[۳]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) −25.0·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[۴]
Young's modulus 10 GPa
Shear modulus 3.7 GPa
Bulk modulus 8.3 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.33
Mohs hardness 2.0
Brinell hardness 736 MPa
CAS Number 7782-49-2
History
Naming after Selene, Greek goddess of the moon
Discovery and first isolation Jöns Jakob Berzelius and Johann Gottlieb Gahn (1817)
Main isotopes of selenium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

74Se 0.86% stable

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

76Se 9.23% stable
77Se 7.60% stable
78Se 23.69% stable
79Se trace 3.27×105 y β 79Br
80Se 49.80% stable
82Se 8.82% 1.08×1020 y ββ 82Kr
| references | in Wikidata

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د استعمال ځایونهسمول

سرچينېسمول

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. کينډۍ:Greenwood&Earnshaw
  3. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in کينډۍ:RubberBible86th
  4. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 

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