گاليوم

(له Gallium نه مخ گرځېدلی)

گاليوم (په انگرېزي: Gallium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Ga سمبول او ۳۱ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

Gallium,  31Ga
Gallium1 640x480.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈɡæliəm/
GAL-ee-əm
Appearancesilvery blue
Gallium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Al

Ga

In
zincgalliumgermanium
اټومي شمیره (Z)31
گروپ, پیریودgroup 13 (boron group), period 4
بلاکp-block
Element category  post-transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 3
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى302.9146 K ​(29.7646 °C, ​85.5763 °F)
يشنا ټکی2673 K ​(2400 °C, ​4352 °F)[۲]
Density near r.t.5.91 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.6.095 g/cm3
Heat of fusion5.59 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization256 kJ/mol[۲]
Molar heat capacity25.86 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1310 1448 1620 1838 2125 2518
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states3, 2, 1, −1, −2, −4, −5[۳] ​(an amphoteric oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.81
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 578.8 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1979.3 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2963 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 135 pm
Covalent radius122±3 pm
Van der Waals radius187 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structureorthorhombic
Orthorhombic crystal structure for gallium
Speed of sound thin rod2740 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion18 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه40.6 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity270 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol)−21.6·10−6 cm3/mol (at 290 K)[۴]
Young's modulus9.8 GPa
Poisson ratio0.47
Mohs hardness1.5
Brinell hardness56.8–68.7 MPa
CAS Number7440-55-3
History
Namingafter Gallia (Latin for: France), homeland of the discoverer
PredictionDmitri Mendeleev (1871)
Discovery and first isolationLecoq de Boisbaudran (1875)
Main isotopes of gallium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
66Ga syn 9.5 h β+ 66Zn
67Ga syn 3.3 d ε 67Zn
68Ga syn 1.2 h β+ 68Zn
69Ga 60.11% stable

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

71Ga 39.89% stable
72Ga syn 14.1 h β 72Ge
73Ga syn 4.9 h β 73Ge
| references | in Wikidata

مشخصاتسمول

تاریخچهسمول

مرکباتسمول

د استعمال ځایونهسمول

سرچينېسمول

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. ۲٫۰ ۲٫۱ Zhang Y; Evans JRG; Zhang S (2011). "Corrected Values for Boiling Points and Enthalpies of Vaporization of Elements in Handbooks". J. Chem. Eng. Data 56 (2): 328–337. doi:10.1021/je1011086. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/231538496_Corrected_Values_for_Boiling_Points_and_Enthalpies_of_Vaporization_of_Elements_in_Handbooks. 
  3. Hofmann, Patrick (1997). Colture. Ein Programm zur interaktiven Visualisierung von Festkörperstrukturen sowie Synthese, Struktur und Eigenschaften von binären und ternären Alkali- und Erdalkalimetallgalliden (PDF) (په الماني ژبه کي). PhD Thesis, ETH Zurich. د کتاب پاڼې 72. doi:10.3929/ethz-a-001859893. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 3728125970. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  4. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. د کتاب پاڼي E110. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0464-4. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)

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