آرنۍ غورنۍ پرانيستل

اېربيوم

(له Erbium نه مخ گرځېدلی)

اېربيوم (په انگرېزي: Erbium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Er سمبول او ۶۸ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

Erbium,  68Er
Erbium-crop.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈɜrbiəm/
UR-bee-əm
Appearance silvery white
Erbium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


Er

Fm
holmiumerbiumthulium
اټومي شمیره (Z) 68
گروپ, پیریود group n/a, period 6
بلاک f-block
Element category   lanthanide
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f12 6s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 30, 8, 2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 1802 K ​(1529 °C, ​2784 °F)
يشنا ټکی 3141 K ​(2868 °C, ​5194 °F)
Density near r.t. 9.066 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 8.86 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 19.90 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 280 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 28.12 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1504 1663 (1885) (2163) (2552) (3132)
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 3, 2, 1 ​(a basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.24
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 589.3 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1150 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2194 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 176 pm
Covalent radius 189±6 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for erbium
Speed of sound thin rod 2830 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion poly: 12.2 µm/(m·K) (r.t.)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 14.5 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity poly: 0.860 µΩ·m (r.t.)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic at 300 K
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) +44,300.00·10−6 cm3/mol[۲]
Young's modulus 69.9 GPa
Shear modulus 28.3 GPa
Bulk modulus 44.4 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.237
Vickers hardness 430–700 MPa
Brinell hardness 600–1070 MPa
CAS Number 7440-52-0
History
Naming after Ytterby (Sweden), where it was mined
Discovery Carl Gustaf Mosander (1842)
Main isotopes of erbium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
160Er syn 28.58 h ε 160Ho
162Er 0.139% stable
164Er 1.601% stable
165Er syn 10.36 h ε 165Ho
166Er 33.503% stable
167Er 22.869% stable
168Er 26.978% stable
169Er syn 9.4 d β 169Tm
170Er 14.910% stable
171Er syn 7.516 h β 171Tm
172Er syn 49.3 h β 172Tm
| references | in Wikidata

مشخصاتسمول

تاریخچهسمول

مرکباتسمول

د استعمال ځایونهسمول

سرچينېسمول

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 

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