بورون

(له Boron نه مخ گرځېدلی)

بورون (په انگرېزي: Boron) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د B سمبول او ۵ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

Boron,  5B
boron (β-rhombohedral)[۱]
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈbɔərɒn/
Allotropesα-, β-rhombohedral, β-tetragonal (and more)
Appearanceblack-brown
Boron په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


B

Al
berylliumboroncarbon
اټومي شمیره (Z)5
گروپ, پیریودgroup 13 (boron group), period 2
بلاکp-block
Element category  metalloid
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)
  • [10.806, 10.821][۲]
  • conventional: 10.81
Electron configuration[He] 2s2 2p1
Electrons per shell
2, 3
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى2349 K ​(2076 °C, ​3769 °F)
يشنا ټکی4200 K ​(3927 °C, ​7101 °F)
Density when liquid, at m.p.2.08 g/cm3
Heat of fusion50.2 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization508 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity11.087 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2348 2562 2822 3141 3545 4072
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states3, 2, 1, −1, −5[۳][۴] ​(a mildly acidic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.04
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 800.6 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 2427.1 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 3659.7 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 90 pm
Covalent radius84±3 pm
Van der Waals radius192 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurerhombohedral
Rhombohedral crystal structure for boron
Rhombohedral crystal structure for boron
Speed of sound thin rod16,200 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansionβ form: 5–7 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)[۵]
د تودوخې تېرېدنه27.4 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity~106 Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[۶]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol)−6.7·10−6 cm3/mol[۷]
Mohs hardness~9.5
CAS Number7440-42-8
History
DiscoveryJoseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis Jacques Thénard[۸] (30 June 1808)
First isolationHumphry Davy[۹] (9 July 1808)
Main isotopes of boron
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
10B 20% stable[۱۰]
11B 80% stable[۱۰]
10B content may be as low as 19.1% and as high as 20.3% in natural samples. 11B is the remainder in such cases.[۱۱]
| references | in Wikidata

مشخصات

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مرکبات

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سرچينې

سمول
  1. Van Setten et al. 2007, pp. 2460–1
  2. Meija, J.; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود)
  3. Zhang, K.Q.; Guo, B.; Braun, V.; Dulick, M.; Bernath, P.F. (1995). "Infrared Emission Spectroscopy of BF and AIF" (PDF). J. Molecular Spectroscopy. 170: 82. Bibcode:1995JMoSp.170...82Z. doi:10.1006/jmsp.1995.1058. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود)
  4. کينډۍ:Cite article
  5. Holcombe Jr., C. E.; Smith, D. D.; Lorc, J. D.; Duerlesen, W. K.; Carpenter; D. A. (October 1973). "Physical-Chemical Properties of beta-Rhombohedral Boron". High Temp. Sci. 5 (5): 349–57. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود)
  6. Lide, David R. (ed.) (2000). Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF). CRC press. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0849304814. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود)صيانة CS1: نص إضافي: ليکوالانو نوملړ (link)
  7. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. مخونه E110. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0464-4. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود)
  8. Gay Lussac, J.L. & Thenard, L.J. (1808). "Sur la décomposition et la recomposition de l'acide boracique". Annales de chimie. 68: 169–174. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود)
  9. Davy H (1809). "An account of some new analytical researches on the nature of certain bodies, particularly the alkalies, phosphorus, sulphur, carbonaceous matter, and the acids hitherto undecomposed: with some general observations on chemical theory". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 99: 39–104. doi:10.1098/rstl.1809.0005. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود)
  10. ۱۰٫۰ ۱۰٫۱ "Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions for All Elements". National Institute of Standards and Technology. لاسرسي‌نېټه ۲۱ سپټمبر ۲۰۰۸. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود)
  11. Szegedi, S.; Váradi, M.; Buczkó, Cs. M.; Várnagy, M.; Sztaricskai, T. (1990). "Determination of boron in glass by neutron transmission method". Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry Letters. 146 (3): 177. doi:10.1007/BF02165219. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود)

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