آرنۍ غورنۍ پرانيستل

هافنيوم

(له Hafnium نه مخ گرځېدلی)

هافنيوم (په انگرېزي: Hafnium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Hf سمبول او v۲ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

Hafnium,  72Hf
Hf-crystal bar.jpg
Hafnium spectrum visible.png
Spectral lines of hafnium (400–700 nm)
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈhæfniəm/
HAF-nee-əm
Appearance steel gray
Hafnium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Zr

Hf

Rf
lutetiumhafniumtantalum
اټومي شمیره (Z) 72
گروپ, پیریود group 4, period 6
بلاک d-block
Element category   transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 10, 2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 2506 K ​(2233 °C, ​4051 °F)
يشنا ټکی 4876 K ​(4603 °C, ​8317 °F)
Density near r.t. 13.31 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 12 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 27.2 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 648 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 25.73 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2689 2954 3277 3679 4194 4876
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2, 1, −2 ​(an amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.3
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 658.5 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1440 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2250 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 159 pm
Covalent radius 175±10 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for hafnium
Speed of sound thin rod 3010 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 5.9 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 23.0 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 331 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[۲]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) +75.0·10−6 cm3/mol (at 298 K)[۳]
Young's modulus 78 GPa
Shear modulus 30 GPa
Bulk modulus 110 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.37
Mohs hardness 5.5
Vickers hardness 1520–2060 MPa
Brinell hardness 1450–2100 MPa
CAS Number 7440-58-6
History
Naming after Hafnia. Latin for: Copenhagen, where it was discovered
Prediction Dmitri Mendeleev (1869)
Discovery and first isolation Dirk Coster and George de Hevesy (1922)
Main isotopes of hafnium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
172Hf syn 1.87 y ε 172Lu
174Hf 0.16% 2×1015 y α 170Yb
176Hf 5.26% stable
177Hf 18.60% stable
178Hf 27.28% stable
178m2Hf syn 31 y IT 178Hf
179Hf 13.62% stable
180Hf 35.08% stable
182Hf syn 8.9×106 y β 182Ta
| references | in Wikidata

مشخصاتسمول

تاریخچهسمول

مرکباتسمول

د استعمال ځایونهسمول

سرچينېسمول

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Lide, D. R., ed (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. http://web.archive.org/web/20110303222309/http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering/elementmagn.pdf. 
  3. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 

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