هېليوم

(له Helium نه مخ گرځېدلی)

هېليوم (په انگرېزي: Helium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د He سمبول او ۲ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

Helium,  2He
Helium discharge tube.jpg
Helium spectra.jpg
Spectral lines of helium
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈhliəm/
HEE-lee-əm
Appearancecolorless gas, exhibiting a red-orange glow when placed in an electric field
Helium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


He

Ne
hydrogenheliumlithium
اټومي شمیره (Z)2
گروپ, پیریودgroup 18 (noble gases), period 1
بلاکs-block
Element category  noble gas
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration1s2
Electrons per shell
2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)گاز
دويلې کيدو ټکى0.95 K ​(−272.20 °C, ​−457.96 °F) (at 2.5 MPa)
يشنا ټکی4.222 K ​(−268.928 °C, ​−452.070 °F)
کثافت (at STP)0.1786 g/L
when liquid, at m.p.0.145 g/cm3
when liquid, at b.p.0.125 g/cm3
Triple point2.177 K, ​5.043 kPa
Critical point5.1953 K, 0.22746 MPa
Heat of fusion0.0138 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization0.0829 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity20.78 J/(mol·K)[۲]
Vapor pressure (defined by ITS-90)
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K)     1.23 1.67 2.48 4.21
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states0
ElectronegativityPauling scale: no data
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 2372.3 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 5250.5 kJ/mol
Covalent radius28 pm
Van der Waals radius140 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close-packed crystal structure for helium
Speed of sound972 m/s
د تودوخې تېرېدنه0.1513 W/(m·K)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[۳]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol)−1.88·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[۴]
CAS Number7440-59-7
History
Namingafter Helios, Greek god of the Sun
DiscoveryPierre Janssen, Norman Lockyer (1868)
First isolationWilliam Ramsay, Per Teodor Cleve, Abraham Langlet (1895)
Main isotopes of helium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
3He 0.0002% stable
4He 99.9998% stable
| references | in Wikidata

= مشخصات =هیلیم ډیری ځانګړي ملکیتونه لري: د جوش ټیټ ، ټیټ کثافت ، ټیټ محلولیت ، لوړ حرارتي چالکتیا او غیر فعالیت

= تاریخچه =هیلیم د لمر شاوخوا چاپیریال کې د فرانسوي ستور پیژندونکي پییر جانسن لخوا کشف شوی په 1868 کال کی.


= مرکبات =هیلیم ترټولو کوچنی او سپک نوبل ګاز دی او یو له خورا غیر فعال عناصرو څخه ، نو دا عموما په پام کې نیول شوی و چې د هیلیم مرکبات په بشپړ ډول شتون نلري ،

= د استعمال ځایونه =هیلیم د فایبر آپټیکس او نیمه کنډکټرونو جوړولو لپاره د غیر محافظتي چاپیریال چمتو کولو لپاره کارول کیږي

سرچينېسمول

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Shuen-Chen Hwang, Robert D. Lein, Daniel A. Morgan (2005). "Noble Gases". Kirk Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Wiley. pp. 343–383. doi:10.1002/0471238961.0701190508230114.a01.
  3. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  4. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. د کتاب پاڼي E110. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0464-4. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)

  دا ليکنه نابشپړه ده، تاسې ددې ليکنې په بشپړولو کې د ويکيپېډيا سره مرسته کولای شئ.