آرنۍ غورنۍ پرانيستل

انډيوم

(له Indium نه مخ گرځېدلی)

انډيوم (په انگرېزي: Indium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د In سمبول او ۴۹ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

Indium,  49In
Indium.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈɪndiəm/
IN-dee-əm
Appearance silvery lustrous gray
Indium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Ga

In

Tl
cadmiumindiumtin
اټومي شمیره (Z) 49
گروپ, پیریود group 13 (boron group), period 5
بلاک p-block
Element category   post-transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 18, 3
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 429.7485 K ​(156.5985 °C, ​313.8773 °F)
يشنا ټکی 2345 K ​(2072 °C, ​3762 °F)
Density near r.t. 7.31 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 7.02 g/cm3
Triple point 429.7445 K, ​~1 kPa[۲]
Heat of fusion 3.281 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 231.8 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 26.74 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1196 1325 1485 1690 1962 2340
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 3, 2, 1, −1, −2, −5[۳] ​(an amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.78
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 558.3 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1820.7 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2704 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 167 pm
Covalent radius 142±5 pm
Van der Waals radius 193 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structuretetragonal
Tetragonal crystal structure for indium
Speed of sound thin rod 1215 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 32.1 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 81.8 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 83.7 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[۴]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) −64.0·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[۵]
Young's modulus 11 GPa
Mohs hardness 1.2
Brinell hardness 8.8–10.0 MPa
CAS Number 7440-74-6
History
Discovery Ferdinand Reich and Hieronymous Theodor Richter (1863)
First isolation Hieronymous Theodor Richter (1864)
Main isotopes of indium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
113In 4.28% stable
115In 95.72% 4.41×1014 y β 115Sn
| references | in Wikidata

مشخصاتسمول

تاریخچهسمول

مرکباتسمول

د استعمال ځایونهسمول

سرچينېسمول

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Mangum, B. W. (1989). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". "Determination of the Indium Freezing-point and Triple-point Temperatures"]. Metrologia 26 (4): 211. doi:10.1088/0026-1394/26/4/001. Bibcode1989Metro..26..211M. 
  3. Guloy, A. M.; Corbett, J. D. (1996). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". "Synthesis, Structure, and Bonding of Two Lanthanum Indium Germanides with Novel Structures and Properties"]. Inorganic Chemistry 35 (9): 2616–22. doi:10.1021/ic951378e. 
  4. Lide, D. R., ed (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. http://web.archive.org/web/20110303222309/http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering/elementmagn.pdf. 
  5. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 

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