آرنۍ غورنۍ پرانيستل

لانتېنيوم

(له Lanthanum نه مخ گرځېدلی)

لانتېنيوم (په انگرېزي: Lanthanum) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د La سمبول او ۵v اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

Lanthanum,  57La
Lanthanum-2.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈlænθənəm/
Appearance silvery white
Lanthanum په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Y

La

Ac
bariumlanthanumcerium
اټومي شمیره (Z) 57
گروپ, پیریود group 3, period 6
بلاک d-block
Element category   lanthanide, sometimes considered a transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration [Xe] 5d1 6s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 18, 9, 2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 1193 K ​(920 °C, ​1688 °F)
يشنا ټکی 3737 K ​(3464 °C, ​6267 °F)
Density near r.t. 6.162 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 5.94 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 6.20 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 400 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 27.11 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure (extrapolated)
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2005 2208 2458 2772 3178 3726
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 3, 2, 1 ​(a strongly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.10
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 538.1 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1067 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 1850.3 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 187 pm
Covalent radius 207±8 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structuredouble hexagonal close-packed (dhcp)
Double hexagonal close packed crystal structure for lanthanum
Speed of sound thin rod 2475 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion α, poly: 12.1 µm/(m·K) (at r.t.)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 13.4 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity α, poly: 615 nΩ·m (at r.t.)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[۲]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) +118.0·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[۳]
Young's modulus α form: 36.6 GPa
Shear modulus α form: 14.3 GPa
Bulk modulus α form: 27.9 GPa
Poisson ratio α form: 0.280
Mohs hardness 2.5
Vickers hardness 360–1750 MPa
Brinell hardness 350–400 MPa
CAS Number 7439-91-0
History
Discovery Carl Gustaf Mosander (1838)
Main isotopes of lanthanum
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
137La syn 6×104 y ε 137Ba

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

139La 99.911% stable
| references | in Wikidata

مشخصاتسمول

تاریخچهسمول

مرکباتسمول

د استعمال ځایونهسمول

سرچينېسمول

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Lide, D. R., ed (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. http://web.archive.org/web/20110303222309/http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering/elementmagn.pdf. 
  3. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 

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