کاربون

(له Carbon نه مخ گرځېدلی)

کاربون (په انگرېزي: Carbon) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د C سمبول او ۶ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دسه التروپ

Carbon,  6C
Graphite-and-diamond-with-scale.jpg
Graphite (left) and diamond (right), the two most well-known allotropes of carbon
Carbon Spectra.jpg
Spectral lines of carbon
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈkɑrbən/
KAR-bən
Allotropesgraphite, diamond
Appearancegraphite: black
diamond: clear
Carbon په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


C

Si
boroncarbonnitrogen
اټومي شمیره (Z)6
گروپ, پیریودgroup 14 (carbon group), period 2
بلاکp-block
Element category  polyatomic nonmetal, sometimes considered a metalloid
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)
  • [12.0096, 12.0116][۱]
  • conventional: 12.011
Electron configuration[He] 2s2 2p2
Electrons per shell
2, 4
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)جامد
Sublimation point3915 K ​(3642 °C, ​6588 °F)
Density near r.t.amorphous: 1.8–2.1 g/cm3[۲]
graphite: 2.267 g/cm3
diamond: 3.515 g/cm3
Triple point4600 K, ​10,800 kPa[۳][۴]
Heat of fusiongraphite: 117 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacitygraphite: 8.517 J/(mol·K)
diamond: 6.155 J/(mol·K)
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states+4, +3,[۵] +2, +1,[۶] 0, −1, −2, −3, −4[۷] ​(a mildly acidic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.55
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 1086.5 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 2352.6 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 4620.5 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Covalent radiussp3: 77 pm
sp2: 73 pm
sp: 69 pm
Van der Waals radius170 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structuregraphite: ​simple hexagonal
Simple hexagonal crystal structure for graphite: carbon

(black)
Crystal structurediamond: ​face-centered diamond-cubic
Diamond cubic crystal structure for diamond: carbon

(clear)
Speed of sound thin roddiamond: 18,350 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansiondiamond: 0.8 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)[۸]
د تودوخې تېرېدنهgraphite: 119–165 W/(m·K)
diamond: 900–2300 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivitygraphite: 7.837 µΩ·m[۹]
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[۱۰]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol)−5.9·10−6 (graph.) cm3/mol[۱۱]
Young's modulusdiamond: 1050 GPa[۸]
Shear modulusdiamond: 478 GPa[۸]
Bulk modulusdiamond: 442 GPa[۸]
Poisson ratiodiamond: 0.1[۸]
Mohs hardnessgraphite: 1–2
diamond: 10
CAS Number7440-44-0
History
DiscoveryEgyptians and Sumerians[۱۲] (3750 BCE)
Recognized as an element byAntoine Lavoisier[۱۳] (1789)
Main isotopes of carbon
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
11C syn 20 min β+ 11B
12C 98.9% stable
13C 1.1% stable
14C trace 5730 y β 14N
| references | in Wikidata

مشخصاتسمول

تاریخچهسمول

مرکباتسمول

د استعمال ځایونهسمول

سرچينېسمول

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  2. کينډۍ:RubberBible86th
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  4. Savvatimskiy, A (2005). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". "Measurements of the melting point of graphite and the properties of liquid carbon (a review for 1963–2003)"]. Carbon 43 (6): 1115. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2004.12.027. 
  5. کينډۍ:Citeweb
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  8. ۸٫۰ ۸٫۱ ۸٫۲ ۸٫۳ ۸٫۴ Properties of diamond, Ioffe Institute Database
  9. "Material Properties- Misc Materials". www.nde-ed.org. د لاسرسي‌نېټه ۱۲ نومبر ۲۰۱۶. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
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  12. "History of Carbon and Carbon Materials - Center for Applied Energy Research - University of Kentucky". Caer.uky.edu. د لاسرسي‌نېټه ۱۲ سپټمبر ۲۰۰۸. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
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