آرنۍ غورنۍ پرانيستل

ارېډيوم

(له Iridium نه مخ گرځېدلی)

ارېډيوم (په انگرېزي: Iridium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Ir سمبول او vv اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

Iridium,  77Ir
Pieces of pure iridium
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ɪˈrɪdiəm/
I-RID-EE-əm
Appearance silvery white
Iridium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Rh

Ir

Mt
osmiumiridiumplatinum
اټومي شمیره (Z) 77
گروپ, پیریود group 9, period 6
بلاک d-block
Element category   transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d7 6s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 15, 2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 2719 K ​(2446 °C, ​4435 °F)
يشنا ټکی 4403 K ​(4130 °C, ​7466 °F)
Density near r.t. 22.56 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 19 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 41.12 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 564 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 25.10 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2713 2957 3252 3614 4069 4659
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states −3, −1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9[۲]
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.20
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 880 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1600 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 136 pm
Covalent radius 141±6 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for iridium
Speed of sound thin rod 4825 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 6.4 µm/(m·K)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 147 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 47.1 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[۳]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) +25.6·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[۴]
Young's modulus 528 GPa
Shear modulus 210 GPa
Bulk modulus 320 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.26
Mohs hardness 6.5
Vickers hardness 1760–2200 MPa
Brinell hardness 1670 MPa
CAS Number 7439-88-5
History
Discovery and first isolation Smithson Tennant (1803)
Main isotopes of iridium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
188Ir syn 1.73 d ε 188Os
189Ir syn 13.2 d ε 189Os
190Ir syn 11.8 d ε 190Os
191Ir 37.3% stable

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

192m2Ir syn 241 y IT 192Ir
193Ir 62.7% stable
193mIr syn 10.5 d IT 193Ir
194Ir syn 19.3 h β 194Pt
194m2Ir syn 171 d IT 194Ir
| references | in Wikidata

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سرچينېسمول

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Wang, Guanjun; Zhou, Mingfei; Goettel, James T.; Schrobilgen, Gary G.; Su, Jing; Li, Jun; Schlöder, Tobias; Riedel, Sebastian (2014). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". "Identification of an iridium-containing compound with a formal oxidation state of IX"]. Nature 514: 475–477. doi:10.1038/nature13795. PMID 25341786. 
  3. Lide, D. R., ed (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. http://web.archive.org/web/20110303222309/http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering/elementmagn.pdf. 
  4. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 

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