آرنۍ غورنۍ پرانيستل

بېسموت

(له Bismuth نه مخ گرځېدلی)

بېسموت (په انگرېزي: Bismuth) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Bi سمبول او ۸۳ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

Bismuth,  83Bi
Bismuth crystals and 1cm3 cube.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈbɪzməθ/
BIZ-məth
Appearance lustrous brownish silver
Bismuth په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Sb

Bi

Mc
leadbismuthpolonium
اټومي شمیره (Z) 83
گروپ, پیریود group 15 (pnictogens), period 6
بلاک p-block
Element category   post-transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 544.7 K ​(271.5 °C, ​520.7 °F)
يشنا ټکی 1837 K ​(1564 °C, ​2847 °F)
Density near r.t. 9.78 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 10.05 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 11.30 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 179 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 25.52 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 941 1041 1165 1325 1538 1835
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, −1, −2, −3 ​(a mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.02
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 703 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1610 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2466 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radius empirical: 156 pm
Covalent radius 148±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 207 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurerhombohedral[۲]
Rhombohedral crystal structure for bismuth
Speed of sound thin rod 1790 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 13.4 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 7.97 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 1.29 µΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) −280.1·10−6 cm3/mol[۳]
Young's modulus 32 GPa
Shear modulus 12 GPa
Bulk modulus 31 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.33
Mohs hardness 2.25
Brinell hardness 70–95 MPa
CAS Number 7440-69-9
History
Discovery Claude François Geoffroy (1753)
Main isotopes of bismuth
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
207Bi syn 31.55 y β+ 207Pb
208Bi syn 3.68×105 y β+ 208Pb
209Bi 100% 1.9×1019 y α 205Tl

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2 کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

| references | in Wikidata

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سرچينېسمول

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Cucka, P.; Barrett, C. S. (1962). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". "The crystal structure of Bi and of solid solutions of Pb, Sn, Sb and Te in Bi"]. Acta Crystallographica 15 (9): 865. doi:10.1107/S0365110X62002297. 
  3. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 

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