آرنۍ غورنۍ پرانيستل

هېليوم (په انگرېزي: Helium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د He سمبول او ۲ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

Helium,  2He
Helium discharge tube.jpg
Helium spectra.jpg
Spectral lines of helium
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈhliəm/
HEE-lee-əm
Appearance colorless gas, exhibiting a red-orange glow when placed in an electric field
Helium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


He

Ne
hydrogenheliumlithium
اټومي شمیره (Z) 2
گروپ, پیریود group 18 (noble gases), period 1
بلاک s-block
Element category   noble gas
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration 1s2
Electrons per shell
2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) گاز
دويلې کيدو ټکى 0.95 K ​(−272.20 °C, ​−457.96 °F) (at 2.5 MPa)
يشنا ټکی 4.222 K ​(−268.928 °C, ​−452.070 °F)
کثافت (at STP) 0.1786 g/L
when liquid, at m.p. 0.145 g/cm3
when liquid, at b.p. 0.125 g/cm3
Triple point 2.177 K, ​5.043 kPa
Critical point 5.1953 K, 0.22746 MPa
Heat of fusion 0.0138 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 0.0829 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 20.78 J/(mol·K)[۲]
Vapor pressure (defined by ITS-90)
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K)     1.23 1.67 2.48 4.21
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 0
Electronegativity Pauling scale: no data
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 2372.3 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 5250.5 kJ/mol
Covalent radius 28 pm
Van der Waals radius 140 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close-packed crystal structure for helium
Speed of sound 972 m/s
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 0.1513 W/(m·K)
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[۳]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) −1.88·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[۴]
CAS Number 7440-59-7
History
Naming after Helios, Greek god of the Sun
Discovery Pierre Janssen, Norman Lockyer (1868)
First isolation William Ramsay, Per Teodor Cleve, Abraham Langlet (1895)
Main isotopes of helium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
3He 0.0002% stable
4He 99.9998% stable
| references | in Wikidata

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سرچينېسمول

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Shuen-Chen Hwang, Robert D. Lein, Daniel A. Morgan (2005). "Noble Gases". Kirk Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Wiley. pp. 343–383. doi:10.1002/0471238961.0701190508230114.a01.
  3. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  4. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 

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