سوډيوم

يو کيمياوي عنصر چې اتومي نمبر يې 11 دی

سوډيوم (په انگرېزي: Sodium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Na سمبول او ۱۱ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

Sodium,  11Na
Nametal.JPG.jpg
Sodium Spectra.jpg
Spectral lines of sodium
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈsdiəm/
SOH-dee-əm
Appearancesilvery white metallic
Sodium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Li

Na

K
neonsodiummagnesium
اټومي شمیره (Z)11
گروپ, پیریودgroup 1 (alkali metals), period 3
بلاکs-block
Element category  alkali metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration[Ne] 3s1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 1
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى370.944 K ​(97.794 °C, ​208.029 °F)
يشنا ټکی1156.090 K ​(882.940 °C, ​1621.292 °F)
Density near r.t.0.968 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.0.927 g/cm3
Critical point2573 K, 35 MPa (extrapolated)
Heat of fusion2.60 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization97.42 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity28.230 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 554 617 697 802 946 1153
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states+1, −1 ​(a strongly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 0.93
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 495.8 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 4562 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 6910.3 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 186 pm
Covalent radius166±9 pm
Van der Waals radius227 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurebody-centered cubic (bcc)
Body-centered cubic crystal structure for sodium
Speed of sound thin rod3200 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion71 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه142 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity47.7 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic[۲]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol)+16.0·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[۳]
Young's modulus10 GPa
Shear modulus3.3 GPa
Bulk modulus6.3 GPa
Mohs hardness0.5
Brinell hardness0.69 MPa
CAS Number7440-23-5
History
Discovery and first isolationHumphry Davy (1807)
Main isotopes of sodium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
22Na trace 2.602 y β+ 22Ne
23Na 100% stable
24Na trace 14.96 h β 24Mg
| references | in Wikidata

مشخصاتسمول

دا ځانګړتیا د سوډیم بای کاربونیټ پوښاک په مختلف مینځلو ، پاکولو ، او خړوبولو پروسو کې د کارولو لپاره دی.


تاریخچهسمول

سوډیم په 1807 کې د انګلیسي کیمیا پوه همفري ډیوی لخوا کشف شو د کاسټیک سوډا (NaOH) له الیکترولیس څخه.


مرکباتسمول

سوډیم ډیری ګټور مرکبات هم جوړوي. ځینې ​​خورا عام دي:.د میز مالګه (NaCl) ، سوډا ایش (Na2CO3) ، د بیکینګ سوډا (NaHCO3).


د استعمال ځایونهسمول

سوډیم په ځینې اټومي بټیو کې د تودوخې تبادلې کونکي په توګه کارول کیږي ، او د کیمیاوي صنعت کې د اجنټ په توګه.


سرچينېسمول

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  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in کينډۍ:RubberBible86th
  3. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. د کتاب پاڼي E110. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0464-4. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)

  دا ليکنه نابشپړه ده، تاسې ددې ليکنې په بشپړولو کې د ويکيپېډيا سره مرسته کولای شئ.