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[[Image:AlfredNobel adjusted.jpg|thumb|[[Alfred Nobel]]]]
The '''Nobel Prize''' ({{lang-sv|Nobelpriset}}) is a Sweden-based international monetary prize. The award was established in 1895 by a Swedish chemist and inventor [[Alfred Nobel]]. It was first awarded in [[Nobel Prize in Physics|Physics]], [[Nobel Prize in Chemistry|Chemistry]], [[Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine|Physiology or Medicine]], [[Nobel Prize in Literature|Literature]], and [[Nobel Peace Prize|Peace]] in 1901. An associated prize, [[The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel]], was instituted by [[Sveriges Riksbank|Sweden's central bank]] in 1968 and first awarded in 1969.<ref name=Britannica>[http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9056008 "Nobel Prize]" (2007), in ''[[Encyclopædia Britannica]]'', accessed 14 November 2007, from ''Encyclopædia Britannica Online'': <nowiki><http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9056008></nowiki>. {{quote|An additional award, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, was established in 1968 by the Bank of Sweden and was first awarded in 1969. Although not technically a Nobel Prize, it is identified with the award; its winners are announced with the Nobel Prize recipients, and the Prize in Economic Sciences is presented at the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony.}}</ref> The Nobel Prizes in the specific disciplines (physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, and literature) and the Prize in Economics, which is commonly identified with them, are widely regarded as the most prestigious award one can receive in those fields.<ref name=Britannica/>
 
==Ceremony==
With the exception of the [[Nobel Peace Prize]], the Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economics are presented in [[Stockholm]], [[Sweden]], at the annual Prize Award Ceremony on the 10th of December, the anniversary of Nobel's death. The recipients' lectures are presented in the days prior to the award ceremony.<ref name=ceremony>[http://nobelprize.org/award_ceremonies/ "The Nobel Prize Award Ceremonies"], ''nobelprize.org'', accessed 5 November 2007.</ref> The Nobel Peace Prize and its recipients' lectures are presented at the annual Prize Award Ceremony in [[Oslo]], [[Norway]], also on the 10th of December. The award ceremonies and the associated banquets are typically major international events.<ref name=ceremony/>
 
It is unclear why Nobel wished the Peace Prize to be administered in Norway. The Norwegian Nobel Committee speculates that Norway may have been better suited to awarding the prize as it did not have the same militaristic traditions as Sweden and that at the end of the nineteenth century the Norwegian parliament had become closely involved in the [[Inter-Parliamentary Union]]'s efforts to resolve conflicts through mediation and arbitration.<ref name="Why Norway?">{{cite web | title = Why Norway? | work = | publisher = The Norwegian Nobel Committee | date = | url = http://nobelpeaceprize.org/en_GB/about_peaceprize/why-norway/ | format = | doi = | accessdate = 2009-10-11}}</ref> Furthermore, at the time the Nobel prizes were instituted, Norway and Sweden were joined together in a [[personal union|union]] known as the [[Swedish-Norwegian Union]].<ref>[http://nobelprize.org/prize_awarders/ "The Nobel Prize Awarders"], ''nobelprize.org'', accessed 6 November 2007.</ref> It is possible Nobel felt that Norway deserved a share of awarding the prize honors.<ref name="Why Norway?"/> Beyond that, the terms of the Swedish-Norwegian Union meant that the Swedish [[Riksdag]] had more or less exclusive control of the foreign policy of the Union, leaving the Norwegian [[Storting]] a more neutral party.
 
== Alfred Nobel's will ==
[[Image:Alfred Nobels will-November 25th, 1895.jpg|thumb|Alfred Nobel's [[will (law)|will]] from November 25, 1895]]
 
Five Nobel Prizes were instituted by the final will of [[Alfred Nobel]], a [[Sweden|Swedish]] chemist and industrialist, who was the inventor of the high explosive [[dynamite]]. Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last was written a little over a year before he died, and signed at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in [[Paris]] on 27 November 1895. Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31&nbsp;million [[Swedish krona|Swedish ''kronor'']], to establish and endow the five Nobel Prizes.<ref name=Nobelwill>[http://nobelprize.org/alfred_nobel/will/index.html "The Will of Alfred Nobel"], ''nobelprize.org'', accessed 6 November 2007.</ref> (As of 2008 that equates to 186 million US dollars.)
{{cquote|The whole of my remaining realizable estate shall be dealt with in the following way:<br />
The capital shall be invested by my executors in safe securities and shall constitute a fund, the interest on which shall be annually distributed in the form of prizes to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind. The said interest shall be divided into five equal parts, which shall be apportioned as follows: one part to the person who shall have made the most important discovery or invention within the field of physics; one part to the person who shall have made the most important chemical discovery or improvement; one part to the person who shall have made the most important discovery within the domain of physiology or medicine; one part to the person who shall have produced in the field of literature the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency; and one part to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity among nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses.
 
The prizes for physics and chemistry shall be awarded by the Swedish Academy of Sciences; that for physiological or medical works by [[Karolinska Institutet]] in Stockholm; that for literature by the Academy in Stockholm; and that for champions of peace by a committee of five persons to be elected by the Norwegian [[Storting]]. It is my expressed wish that in awarding the prizes no consideration whatever shall be given to the nationality of the candidates, so that the most worthy shall receive the prize, whether he be Scandinavian or not.|20|20|[[Alfred Nobel]], Alfred Nobel's Will<ref name=fullNobelwill>[[Alfred Nobel]]|[http://nobelprize.org/alfred_nobel/will/will-full.html "Alfred Nobel's Will"], ''nobelprize.org'', accessed 15 February 2007. ([[English language|English version]]).</ref>}}
 
Although Nobel's will established the prizes, his plan was incomplete and, because of various other hurdles, it took five years before the [[Nobel Foundation]] could be established and the first prizes awarded on 10 December 1901.<ref>"First Nobel Prizes: December 10, 1901", ''[http://www.historychannel.com/tdih/tdih.jsp?month=10272964&day=10272975&cat=10272946 This Day in History]'', ''[[The History Channel]]'', accessed 30 July 2006.</ref> As of December 31, 2007, the assets controlled by the Nobel Foundation amounted to 3.628 billion Swedish ''kronor'' (approx. $560 million US Dollars)<ref name=NobelFoundEndow>[http://nobelprize.org/nobelfoundation/finan-manag.html "Financial Management"]''nobelprize.org'', accessed 14 October 2009</ref>
 
=== Nomination Process ===
 
In its first stage, several thousand people are asked to nominate candidates. These names are scrutinized and discussed by experts in their specific disciplines until only the winners remain. This slow and thorough process is arguably what gives the prize its importance. Despite this, there have been questionable awards and questionable omissions over the prize's century-long history.
 
[[Image:Dalai Lama and Bishop Tutu. Carey Linde.jpg|thumb|275px|left|The [[Dalai Lama]] & Archbishop [[Desmond Tutu]], [[Nobel Peace Prize]] winners. Photo by Carey Linde, 2004.]]
 
Forms, which amount to a personal and exclusive invitation, are sent to about three thousand selected individuals to invite them to submit nominations. For the peace prize, inquiries are sent to such people as governments of states, members of [[international court]]s, professors and rectors at university level, former Peace Prize laureates, current or former members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, among others. The Norwegian Nobel Committee then bases its assessment on nominations sent in before 3 February.<ref>{{cite web | author=The Norwegian Nobel Foundation | title=How are Laureates selected? | url=http://nobelpeaceprize.org/en_GB/nomination_committee/selection-process/ | work=nobelpeaceprize.org | accessdate=9 November 2009}}</ref> The submission deadline for nominations for Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature and Economics is 31 January.<ref>{{cite web | author=Nobel Foundation | title=Nomination and Selection Process | url=http://nobelprize.org/nomination/chemistry/process.html | work=nobelprize.org | dateformat=mdy | accessdate=July 30, 2006}}</ref> Self-nominations and nominations of deceased people are disqualified.
 
The names of the nominees are never publicly announced, and neither are they told that they have been considered for the Prize. Nomination records are sealed for 50 years.<ref name=nomination>{{cite web | author=The Nobel Foundation | title=Frequently Asked Questions | url=http://nobelprize.org/contact/faq/index.html#1 | work=nobelprize.org | dateformat=mdy | accessdate=December 2, 2008}}</ref> In practice, some nominees do become known. It is also common for publicists to make such a claim, founded or not.
 
After the deadline has passed, the nominations are screened by committee, and a list is produced of approximately 200 preliminary candidates. This list is forwarded to selected experts in the relevant field. They remove all but approximately 15 names. The committee submits a report with recommendations to the appropriate institution. The Assembly for the Physiology or Medicine Prize, for example, has 50 members. The institution members then select prize winners by vote.
 
[[File:Nobelinstituttet 20080913-01.jpg|thumb|275px|right|The committee room of the [[Norwegian Nobel Committee]]]]
 
The selection process varies slightly between the different disciplines. The Literature Prize is rarely awarded to more than one person per year, whereas other Prizes now often involve collaborators of two or three.
 
While posthumous nominations are not permitted, awards can occur if the individual died in the months between the nomination and the decision of the prize committee. The scenario has occurred twice: the 1931 Literature Prize of [[Erik Axel Karlfeldt]], and the 1961 Peace Prize to [[UN Secretary General]] [[Dag Hammarskjöld]]. As of 1974, laureates must be alive at the time of the October announcement. There has been one laureate—[[William Vickrey]] (1996, Economics)—who died after the prize was announced but before it could be presented.
 
=== Recognition time lag ===
 
Nobel's will provides for prizes to be awarded in recognition for discoveries made "during the preceding year", and during the early years of the awards, the discoveries recognized were recent. However, some awards were made for discoveries that were later discredited.<ref>''E.g.'', [[Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger|Johannes Fibiger]] was awarded the 1926 Prize for [[Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine|Physiology or Medicine]] for his purported discovery of a parasite that caused cancer.</ref> Taking the discrediting of a recognized discovery as an embarrassment, the awards committees began to recognize scientific discoveries that had withstood the test of time, but which occurred well before the one-year time frame specified in Nobel's will.
 
The interval between the accomplishment of the achievement being recognized and the awarding of the Nobel Prize for it varies from discipline to discipline. The prizes in Literature are typically awarded to recognize a cumulative lifetime body of work rather than a single achievement. In this case the notion of "lag" does not directly apply. The prizes in Peace can also be awarded for a lifetime body of work. However, they can also be awarded for specific events. In this case, they are awarded within a few years of the event, sometimes within the one-year timeframe. For instance, [[Kofi Annan]] was awarded the 2001 Peace Prize just four years after becoming the Secretary-General of the [[United Nations]]; [[Yasser Arafat]], [[Yitzhak Rabin]], and [[Shimon Peres]] received the 1994 award, about year after they successfully concluded the [[Oslo Accords]]. On the other hand, 2008 winner Martti Ahtisaari won it "for his important efforts, on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts."
 
Awards in the scientific disciplines of physics, chemistry, and medicine require that the significance of achievements being recognized is "tested by time." In practice it means that the lag between the discovery and the award is typically on the order of 20 years and can be even longer. For example, [[Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar]] shared the 1983 [[Nobel Prize in Physics]] for his work on stellar structure and evolution from the 1930s. Not all scientists live long enough for their work to be recognized. Some important scientific discoveries are never considered for a Prize if the discoverers have died by the time the impact of their work is realized.
 
== Award ceremonies ==
[[Image:Melvin Calvin and Swedish king.jpeg|thumb|[[Melvin Calvin]] receiving the Nobel Prize at the Stockholm concert hall in 1961.]]
 
The committees and institutions serving as the selection boards for the Nobel Prizes typically announce the names of the laureates in October, with the Prizes awarded at formal ceremonies held annually on 10 December, the anniversary of [[Alfred Nobel]]'s death.<ref name=ceremony/> These Prize ceremonies are held at the [[Stockholm Concert Hall]], with the Nobel Banquet following immediately at [[Stockholm City Hall]].
 
The Nobel Peace Prize ceremony has been held at the [[Norwegian Nobel Institute]] (1905–1946); at the [[Atrium (architecture)|Aula]] of the [[University of Oslo]] (1947–1990); and most recently at the [[Oslo City Hall]].<ref name=ceremony/>
 
A maximum of three laureates and two different works may be selected per award. Each award can be given to a maximum of three recipients per year. Each "Nobel Prize Award" consists of a gold medal, a diploma, and a monetary grant:
{{quote|The highlight of the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony in Stockholm occurs when each Nobel Laureate steps forward to receive the prize from the hands of His Majesty the King of Sweden. In Oslo, the Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee presents the [[Nobel Peace Prize]] in the presence of the King of Norway. Under the eyes of a watching world, the Nobel Laureate receives three things: a diploma, a medal and a document confirming the prize amount.<ref name=What>[http://nobelprize.org/award_ceremonies/prize.html "What the Nobel Laureates Receive"], ''nobelprize.org'', Copyright © The Nobel Foundation 2007, accessed 9 November 2007.</ref>}} The grant is currently 10&nbsp;million&nbsp;[[Swedish krona|SEK]], slightly more than [[United States dollar|US$]]1.4&nbsp;million.<ref name=Amounts>[http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/amounts.html "The Nobel Prize Amounts"], ''nobelprize.org'', Copyright © The Nobel Foundation 2007, accessed 9 November 2007.</ref>
 
If there are two winners in a particular category, the award grant is divided equally between the recipients. If there are three, the awarding committee has the option of dividing the grant equally, or awarding one-half to one recipient and one-quarter to each of the others. It is not uncommon for recipients to donate prize money to benefit scientific, cultural or humanitarian causes.
 
[[File:Konserthuset Stockholm.jpg|thumb|left|''[[Stockholm Concert Hall|Konserthuset]]'' (Stockholm)]]
 
Since 1902, the [[Monarch of Sweden|King of Sweden]] has, with the exception of the [[Nobel Peace Prize]], presented all the prizes in [[Stockholm]]. At first [[Oscar II of Sweden|King Oscar II]] did not approve of awarding grand prizes to foreigners, but is said to have changed his mind once his attention had been drawn to the publicity value of the prizes for Sweden.
 
Until the [[Norwegian Nobel Committee]] was established in 1904, the President of Norwegian Parliament made the formal presentation of the Nobel Peace Prize. The Committee's five members are entrusted with researching and adjudicating the Prize as well as awarding it. Although appointed by the [[Storting|Norwegian Parliament]] (''Stortinget''), they are independent and answer to no legislative authority. Members of the Norwegian government are not permitted to sit on the Committee.
 
=== Nobel Banquet ===
 
In Stockholm after the award ceremony at the Concert Hall, around 1,300 guests proceed to the [[Stockholm City Hall]], where a banquet featuring a three course dinner (during all the years after World War II the menus consisted of three dishes except for the year 1991, when it consisted of four because of the 90th anniversary of the Prize<ref>[http://nobelprize.org/award_ceremonies/banquet/menus/soderlind/index.html Nobel Prize Foundation Website]</ref>), entertainment and dancing is held. The Royal Family of Sweden and the Nobel Prize Laureates are guests of honour. The banquet is extensively covered by Swedish and International media. Previously, the Nobel Prizes ceremony was held in a ballroom in Stockholm's [[Grand Hôtel (Stockholm)|Grand Hotel]].<ref name=ceremony/>
 
For the Peace Prize Banquet in Oslo the award ceremony in Oslo City Hall is of course also followed by festivities:
<blockquote>The Nobel Banquet is held at the Grand Hotel in the centre of Oslo on the evening of December 10. Some 250 guests in full dress are welcomed by the Nobel Committee before in due course finding their places at the round tables in the banqueting hall - laid for the occasion with the special Nobel dinner service - to enjoy a five-course gourmet meal. The Laureate's table is right in the middle of the hall. Seated with the Laureate are the Nobel Committee and its permanent secretary, the President of the Storting, the Prime Minister, and - since 2006 - the King and Queen. Other guests include Ministers, members of the Storting, and prominent representatives of public institutions, idealistic organizations, and cultural and commercial life. Traditionally, three speeches are given at the Nobel Banquet. First, the deputy chairman of the Nobel Committee speaks in honour of the Laureate, often giving the address a humorous slant. The Laureate speaks second. Finally the President of the Storting delivers an after-dinner speech. The Nobel Banquet was formerly held in alternate years at the Grand Hotel and Hotel Bristol, but is now always held at the Grand, which also has a special Nobel suite.<ref>[http://nobelpeaceprize.org/en_GB/about_peaceprize/banquet/ Nobel Prize Website]</ref></blockquote>
 
The dress-code is formal. At the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony in Oslo and Stockholm, guests are required to come in dark suit for gentlemen and short or long dress for ladies. The Nobel Banquet that follows in Stockholm is a strictly formal affair and gentlemen are required to wear white tie and tails, while ladies should be clad in evening gown. Wearing your national costume is an alternative to white tails or evening gown. If you are invited to both gatherings then the strictly formal attire applies.<ref>[http://nobelprize.org/award_ceremonies/banquet/dresscode/ Nobel Foundation Website]</ref>
 
=== Nobel NightCap ===
 
Since 1978, sanctioned by the Nobel foundation, the student unions at four of Stockholm's institutions of higher learning: [[Stockholm University]], [[Royal Institute of Technology]], [[Stockholm School of Economics]] and [[Karolinska Institutet]] , arrange a lavish [[afterparty]] on a rotating basis, to be held after the Nobel Banquet. Nobel NightCap is designed around a secret theme, unveiled at the eve of the party. The event is aimed at providing the Nobel Laureates and other guests with an opportunity to continue celebrations in a relaxed environment without media participation.<ref>[http://www.nobelnightcap.se Nobel NightCap homepage]</ref>
 
== Nobel Prize medals ==
 
[[Image:NobelPrize.JPG|right|thumb|Front side (obverse) of one of the Nobel Prize medals in [[Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine|Physiology or Medicine]] awarded in 1950 to researchers at the [[Mayo Clinic]].]]
[[Image:DSCN0732.JPG|right|thumb|Obverse of the Nobel Peace Prize Medal presented to [[Norman Angell|Sir Ralph Norman Angell]] in 1933; the [[Imperial War Museum]], [[London]].]]
 
The Nobel Prize medals, which have been minted by [[Myntverket]]<ref>{{cite web
| title = Medalj - ett traditionellt hantverk
| publisher = Myntverket
| url = http://www.myntverket.se/products.asp?lang=sv&page=3
| language = Swedish
| accessdate = 2007-12-15 }}</ref> in Sweden and the [[Mint of Norway]] since 1902, are registered trademarks of the [[Nobel Foundation]]. All of these medal designs feature an image of [[Alfred Nobel]] in left profile on the obverse (the face of the medal). Four of the five Nobel Prize medals ([[Nobel Prize in Physics|Physics]], [[Nobel Prize in Chemistry|Chemistry]], [[Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine|Physiology or Medicine]], and [[Nobel Prize in Literature|Literature]]) feature the same design on the obverse (front sides). The reverse sides of the Nobel Prize medals for Chemistry and Physics share a design.<ref name=What/><ref name=Lemmel>Birgitta Lemmel, [http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medals/ "The Nobel Prize Medals and the Medal for the Prize in Economics"], ''nobelprize.org'', Copyright © The [[Nobel Foundation]] 2006, accessed 9 November 2007. Original designs © The Nobel Foundation. Copyright © Nobel Web AB 2007.<!--See talk page archive 1 and current talk page.--></ref><ref name=Paulingmedal>[http://osulibrary.oregonstate.edu/specialcollections/coll/pauling/bond/pictures/nobel-chemistry-medal.html "Nobel Prize for Chemistry. Front and back images of the medal. 1954"], "Source: Photo by Eric Arnold. Ava Helen and [[Linus Pauling]] Papers. Honors and Awards, 1954h2.1", "All Documents and Media: Pictures and Illustrations", ''Linus Pauling and The Nature of the Chemical Bond: A Documentary History'', the [[Valley Library]], [[Oregon State University]], accessed 7 December 2007.</ref> Both sides of the [[Nobel Peace Prize]] Medal<ref name=PaulingPeacePrize>[http://digitalcollections.library.oregonstate.edu/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/pawardsmedals&CISOPTR=47 "The Nobel Prize for Peace"], "Linus Pauling: Awards, Honors, and Medals", ''Linus Pauling and The Nature of the Chemical Bond: A Documentary History'', the [[Valley Library]], [[Oregon State University]], accessed 7 December 2007.</ref> and the Medal for [[The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel]] are unique designs.<ref name=Lemmel/><!--See talk page archive 1 and current talk page.--><ref name=What/>
 
{{quote|The Nobel Prize medals in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine and Literature have identical obverses: it shows the image of Alfred Nobel and the years of his birth and death (1833–1896). Nobel's portrait also appears on the obverse of the [[Nobel Peace Prize]] Medal and the Medal for [[The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel|the Prize in Economics]], but with a slightly different design. The image on the reverse varies according to the institution awarding the prize. All medals made before 1980 were struck in 23 carat gold. Today, they are made from 18 carat [[green gold]] plated with 24 carat gold. They each weigh approximately 200 g and have a diameter of 66 mm.<ref name=What/><ref name=Lemmel/>}}
 
Because of their gold content and public display, Nobel medals are subject to [[medal theft]]. During [[World War II]], the medals of German scientists [[Max von Laue]] and [[James Franck]] were (illegally) sent to Copenhagen for safekeeping. When Germany invaded Denmark, chemist [[George de Hevesy]] dissolved them in [[aqua regia]], to prevent confiscation by [[Nazi Germany]] and to prevent legal problems for the holders. After the war, the gold was recovered from solution, and the medals re-cast.<ref name="Lemmel"/>
 
== Controversies and criticisms ==
{{Main|Nobel Prize controversies|Nobel Prize in Literature#Controversies about Nobel Laureate selections|l2=Non-laureates and controversies regarding the Nobel Prize in Literature}}
 
Since the first Nobel Prize was awarded in 1901, the proceedings, nominations, awards and exclusions have generated criticism and engendered much controversy.
 
==== Overlooked achievements ====
 
[[Mahatma Gandhi]] was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize five times between 1937 and 1948 but never received the prize, being assassinated on 30 January 1948 two days before the closing date for the 1948 Peace Prize nominations. The Norwegian Nobel Committee had very likely planned to give him the Peace Prize in 1948 as they considered a posthumous award, but ultimately decided against it, and instead chose not to award the prize that year.<ref>{{cite web | author=Nobel Foundation | title=Mahatma Gandhi, the Missing Laureate | url=http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/articles/gandhi/index.html | work=nobelprize.org | dateformat=mdy | accessdate=October 7, 2006}}.</ref> A U.S. [[philatelic exhibition]] in [[Chicago]], ''Chicagopex 2001'', chose to honor the 100th anniversary of the Nobel Prize with a special show of commemorative [[cachet|postal cachets]]. One theme of the exhibition cast a shadow on the Nobel Peace Prize’s first century – the fact that the Peace Prize had not been awarded to Mahatma Gandhi.<ref>[http://gandhi.topicalphilately.com/Gandhi%20and%20the%20Nobel%20Peace%20prize.pdf Gandhi and the Nobel Peace Prize: Nobel Centennial Special Covers at Chicagopex 2001]</ref>
 
The strict rules against a prize being awarded to more than three people at once is also a cause for controversy. Where a prize is awarded to recognise an achievement by a team of more than three collaborators, inevitably one or more will miss out. For example, in 2002, a Prize was awarded to [[Koichi Tanaka]] and [[John B. Fenn|John Fenn]] for the development of [[mass spectrometry]] in [[Protein|protein chemistry]], an award that failed to recognise the achievements of Franz Hillenkamp and Michael Karas of the ''Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry'' at the [[Johann Wolfgang Goethe University of Frankfurt am Main|University of Frankfurt]].<ref>Laura Spinney, [http://www.the-scientist.com/article/display/20931/ "News Analysis: Nobel Prize Controversy"], ''[[The Scientist]]'' 3.1 (11 December 2002): 20021211-03, accessed 28 October 2006.</ref> Another well known miss was the Nobel Prize in Physics of 1965, that was awarded to [[Richard Feynman|Richard P. Feynman]], [[Julian Schwinger|Julian S. Schwinger]] and [[Sin-Itiro Tomonaga]] but failed to recognize the contribution of [[Freeman Dyson|Freeman C. Dyson]], that demonstrated the equivalence of the formulations of [[quantum electrodynamics]] of the other three scientists.{{Citation needed|date=December 2009}}
 
Similarly, the prohibition of posthumous awards fails to recognise achievements by a collaborator who happens to die before the prize is awarded. [[Rosalind Franklin]], who was a key contributor in the discovery of the structure of [[DNA]] in 1953, died of [[ovarian cancer]] in 1958, four years before [[Francis Crick]], [[James D. Watson]] and [[Maurice Wilkins]] (one of Franklin's collaborators) were awarded the Prize for Medicine or Physiology in 1962.<ref>{{cite web | author=Nobel Foundation | title=The Discovery of the Molecular Structure of DNA - The Double Helix | url=http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/medicine/dna_double_helix/readmore.html | accessdate=July 30, 2006}}</ref> Franklin's significant and relevant contribution was only briefly mentioned in Crick and Watson's now-famous paper: "We have also been stimulated by a knowledge of the general nature of the unpublished experimental results and ideas of Dr. M.H.F. Wilkins, Dr. R.E. Franklin, and co-workers...."<ref>J.D. Watson and F.H.C. Crick, {{PDFlink|[http://www.nature.com/nature/dna50/watsoncrick.pdf "Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids"]|359&nbsp;[[Kibibyte|KiB]]<!-- application/pdf, 367876 bytes -->}}, ''[[Nature (magazine)|Nature]]'' 171.4356 (1953): 737-38.</ref>, but of course was highlighted in Franklin's own paper (with [[Raymond Gosling]]) <ref> R. Franklin and R.G. Gosling. 1953. Molecular configuration in sodium thymonucleate. Nature 171:740-741. [http://www.nature.com/nature/dna50/franklingosling.pdf]</ref> which accompanied Watson and Crick's paper.
 
In some cases, awards have arguably omitted similar discoveries made earlier. For example, the 2000 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "the discovery and development of conductive [[organic polymers]]" (1977) ignored the much earlier discovery of highly conductive [[charge transfer complex]] polymers: the 1963 series of papers by Weiss, ''et al.'' reported even higher conductivity in similarly iodine-doped oxidized polypyrrole.<ref>{{cite web | author=Peter H. Proctor | url=http://www.organicsemiconductors.com/weiss.htm | title=Electronic Conduction in Polymers--Historic Papers | work=organicsemiconductors.com | accessdate=2007-02-12}}.</ref><ref>{{cite journal | journal=Science | volume=183 | issue=127 | pages=853–5 | date=1974 | author=McGinness J, Corry P, Proctor P. | title=Amorphous semiconductor switching in melanins | pmid=4359339 | doi = 10.1126/science.183.4127.853 }}</ref>
 
==== Lack of a Nobel Prize in Mathematics ====
<!--See talk page for previous part of section, which requires revision and better sourcing/documentation.-->
 
There is no Nobel Prize in [[Mathematics]], which has led to considerable speculation about why [[Alfred Nobel]] omitted it.<ref name=Lars>Lars Gårding and Lars Hörmander, "Why Is There No Nobel Prize in Mathematics?", ''Mathematical Intelligencer'' 7 (1985): 73-74. [They suggest that, primarily, Nobel did not consider Mathematics as "practical" as the other disciplines in which he established Prizes.]</ref><ref name=Morrill>John E. Morrill, "Nobel Prize in Mathematics", ''American Mathematical Monthly'' 102.10 (December 1995): 888-92. ''[[JSTOR]]'' doi:10.2307/2975266. (5 pages.) (Restricted access.) [Summary of various speculations about reasons for Nobel's omitting a Prize in Mathematics, including possibly apocryphal ones.]</ref> Some recipients of the Nobel Prize in other fields also have notable achievements in or have made outstanding contributions to mathematics; for example, [[Bertrand Russell]] was awarded the [[Nobel Prize in Literature]] (1950) and [[Max Born]] and [[Walther Bothe]] shared the [[Nobel Prize in Physics]] (1954). Some others with advanced credentials in mathematics and/or who are known primarily as mathematicians have been awarded the [[Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences|Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel]]: [[Kenneth Arrow]] (1972), [[Leonid Kantorovich]] (1975), [[John Forbes Nash]] (1994), [[Clive W. J. Granger]] (2003), [[Robert J. Aumann]] (who shared the 2005 Prize with [[Thomas C. Schelling]]), and [[Roger Myerson]] and [[Eric Maskin]] (2007).
 
Several prizes in mathematics have some similarities to the Nobel Prize. The [[Fields Medal]] is often described as the "Nobel Prize of mathematics", but it differs in being awarded only once every four years to people not older than forty years old. Other prestigious prizes in mathematics are the [[Crafoord Prize]], awarded by the [[Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences]] since 1982; the [[Abel Prize]] which has also been called the "Nobel Prize of mathematics" and has been awarded by the Norwegian government annually, beginning in 2003; the [[Wolf Prize in Mathematics|Wolf Prize]] awarded once a year by the [[Wolf Foundation]]; the [[Shaw Prize]] in [[mathematical science]]s awarded since 2004; and the [[Gauss Prize]], granted jointly by the [[International Mathematical Union]] and the [[Deutsche Mathematiker-Vereinigung|German Mathematical Society]] for "outstanding mathematical contributions that have found significant applications outside of mathematics," and introduced at the [[International Congress of Mathematicians]] in 2006. The [[Clay Institute|Clay Mathematics Institute]] has devised seven "[[Millennium Prize Problems|Millennium Problems]]," whose solution results in a significant cash award:<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.claymath.org/millennium/|title=Clay Millennium Problems|publisher=[[Clay Institute]]|date=2000-03-02}}.</ref> since it has a clear, predetermined objective for its award and since it can be awarded whenever a problem is solved, this prize also differs from the Nobel Prizes.
 
There is also no Nobel Prize in [[computer science]], which, as a discipline, historically grew out of mathematics. The [[Turing Award]] of the [[Association for Computing Machinery]] is often called the "Nobel prize of computing."
 
==== Emphasis on discoveries over inventions ====
 
Alfred Nobel left a fortune to finance annual prizes to be awarded "to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind". One part, he stated, should be given "to the person who shall have made the most important '''discovery''' or '''invention''' within the field of physics". Nobel did not emphasize discoveries, but they have historically been held in higher respect by the Nobel prize committee than inventions: 77% of Nobel prizes in physics have been given to discoveries, compared with only 23% to inventions. [[Christoph Bartneck]] and [[Matthias Rauterberg]] in papers published in [[Nature]] and [[Technoetic Arts]], have argued this emphasis on discoveries has moved the Nobel prize away from its original intention of rewarding the greatest contribution to society in the preceding year.<ref>Bartneck, C., & Rauterberg, M. (2007). Physics Nobels should favour inventions. Nature, 448(7154), p. 644. DOI [http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/448644c 10.1038/448644c].</ref><ref>Bartneck, C., & Rauterberg, M. (2008). The Asymmetry Between Discoveries and Inventions in the Nobel Prize for Physics. Technoetic Arts, 6(1), pp 73–77. DOI: [http://dx.doi.org/10.1386/tear.6.1.73_1 10.1386/tear.6.1.73_1]</ref>
 
== Specially distinguished laureates ==
=== Multiple laureates ===
 
Since the establishment of the Nobel Prize, four people have received two Nobel Prizes:<ref name="nobelfacts">[http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/nobelprize_facts.html Nobel Prize Facts], ''nobelprize.org'', accessed 18 October 2007.</ref>
* [[Marie Curie|Maria Skłodowska-Curie]]: in Physics 1903, for the discovery of [[radioactivity]]; and in Chemistry 1911, for the isolation of [[radium|pure radium]]
* [[Linus Pauling]]: in Chemistry 1954, for his research into the nature of the [[chemical bond]] and its application to the elucidation of the [[Chemical structure|structure]] of complex substances; and Peace 1962, for nuclear test-ban treaty activism; he is the only person to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes.<ref name=PaulingOSU>See "[http://osulibrary.oregonstate.edu/specialcollections/coll/pauling/bond/narrative/page1.html Preface"], [http://osulibrary.oregonstate.edu/specialcollections/coll/pauling/peace/narrative/page45.html "The Peace Prize..."] and [http://osulibrary.oregonstate.edu/specialcollections/coll/pauling/awards/index.html "Linus Pauling: Awards, Honors, and Medals"], ''Linus Pauling and The Nature of the Chemical Bond: A Documentary History'' and ''Linus Pauling and the International Peace Movement'', ''Ava Helen and Linus Pauling Papers'', ''Special Collections'', the [[Valley Library]], [[Oregon State University]], accessed 13 December 2007.</ref>
* [[John Bardeen]]: in Physics 1956, for the invention of the [[transistor]]; and Physics 1972, for the theory of [[superconductivity]].
* [[Frederick Sanger]]: in Chemistry 1958, for structure of the [[insulin]] molecule; and in Chemistry 1980, for [[virus]] nucleotide sequencing.
 
As a group, the [[International Committee of the Red Cross]] (ICRC) has received the Nobel Peace Prize three times: in 1917, 1944, and 1963. The first two prizes were specifically in recognition of the group's work during the world wars, and the third was awarded at the year of its 100-Year Anniversary.
 
The [[United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees]] (UNHCR) has won the Peace Prize twice: in 1954 and 1981.
 
=== Family laureates ===
 
A number of families have included multiple laureates.<ref name="nobelfacts"/>
* The Curie family claim the most Nobel Prizes, with five:
** [[Maria Skłodowska-Curie]], Physics 1903 and Chemistry 1911
** Her husband [[Pierre Curie]], Physics 1903
** Their daughter [[Irène Joliot-Curie]], Chemistry 1935
** Their son-in-law [[Frederic Joliot-Curie]], Chemistry 1935
** In addition, [[Henry Labouisse]], the husband of the Curies' second daughter [[Ève Curie|Ève]], was the director of [[UNICEF]] when it won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1965.
* [[Gunnar Myrdal]] (Economics, 1974) and wife [[Alva Myrdal]] (Peace, 1982)
* [[J. J. Thomson]], awarded the Nobel prize for Physics in 1906, was the father of [[George Paget Thomson]] who was awarded the Nobel prize for Physics in 1937.
* [[William Henry Bragg]] shared the Nobel prize in Physics in 1915 with his son, [[William Lawrence Bragg]].
* [[Niels Bohr]] won the Nobel prize in Physics in 1922, and his son [[Aage Bohr]] won the Nobel prize in Physics in 1975.
* [[Manne Siegbahn]], who won the Nobel prize in Physics in 1924, was the father of [[Kai Siegbahn]] who shared the Nobel prize in Physics in 1981.
* [[Hans von Euler-Chelpin]] shared the Nobel prize in Chemistry in 1929 with [[Arthur Harden]]. His son, [[Ulf von Euler]], was awarded the Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1970.
* [[C.V. Raman]] who won the Nobel prize in Physics in 1930, was the uncle of [[Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar]] who won the Nobel prize in Physics in 1983.
* [[Arthur Kornberg]] shared with [[Severo Ochoa]] the 1959 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid.<ref>[http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1959/index.html# Physiology or Medicine prize 1959], ''nobelprize.org'', accessed 14 January 2008</ref> Kornberg's son [[Roger Kornberg|Roger]] won the 2006 Nobel prize in Chemistry for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription.<ref>[http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/2006/index.html# Chemistry prize 2006], ''nobelprize.org'', accessed 14 January 2008</ref>
* [[Jan Tinbergen]], who won the Nobel Prize for Economics in 1969, was the brother of [[Nikolaas Tinbergen]] who shared the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with [[Konrad Lorenz]] and [[Karl von Frisch]].
 
== Refusals and constraints ==
 
Two laureates voluntarily declined the Nobel Prize:
* [[Jean-Paul Sartre]], who was awarded the Literature Nobel Prize in 1964<ref>[http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1964/press.html The Nobel Prize in Literature 1964]</ref>
* [[Lê Đức Thọ]], who was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1973<ref>[http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1973/press.html The Nobel Peace Prize 1973]</ref>
 
[[Adolf Hitler]] constrained three laureates not to accept the Nobel Prize; however, they were given their prizes after the end of the [[Second World War]]:
* [[Richard Kuhn]], who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1938<ref>[http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1938/press.html The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1938]</ref>
* [[Adolf Butenandt]], who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1939<ref>[http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1939/press.html The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1939]</ref>
* [[Gerhard Domagk]], who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1939<ref>[http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1939/press.html The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1939]</ref>
 
The [[Soviet Union]] government also constrained [[Boris Pasternak]] not to accept his Nobel Prize in Literature in 1958.<ref>[http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1958/press.html The Nobel Prize in Literature 1958]</ref>
 
== See also ==
 
* [[Ig Nobel Prize]]
* [[List of female Nobel laureates]]
* [[List of Nobel laureates]]
* [[List of Nobel laureates by country]]
* [[List of prizes, medals, and awards]]
* [[Millennium Technology Prize]]
* [[Nobel Conference]]
* [[Nobel laureates by university affiliation]]
* [[Nobel laureates per capita]]
* [[Nobel Library]]
* [[Nobel Museum]]
* [[Nobel Peace Center]]
* [[Norwegian Nobel Committee]]
* [[Right Livelihood Award]], sometimes called the "Alternative Nobel Prize"
 
 
 
== سرچينې ==
{{reflist}}