د "سوداگري" د بڼو تر مېنځ توپير

۲۰٬۸۱۶ ټکی لري شوه ،  ۱۰ کاله مخکې
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{{وټپوهنه}}
یوه '''سوداګري''' (چی همدارنګه '''ملتون''' یا '''تشبث''' هم بلل کیږي)یو قانوني پیژندل شوي [[سازمان]] دی چی مصرف کونکو ته د توکو او خدمتونو په برابرولو کې کار کوي.
A '''business''' (also called a '''firm''', or '''enterprise''') is a legally recognized [[organization]] designed to provide [[good (economics and accounting)|good]]s and/or [[Service (economics)|services]] to [[consumer]]s.<ref>{{cite book
.<ref>{{cite book
| last = Sullivan
| first = arthur
| doi =
| id =
| isbn = 0-13-063085-3}}</ref>
| isbn = 0-13-063085-3}}</ref> Businesses are predominant in [[capitalism|capitalist]] [[economies]], most being [[Private ownership|privately owned]] and formed to earn [[Profit (economics)|profit]] that will increase the [[wealth]] of its owners and grow the business itself. The owners and operators of a business have as one of their main objectives ''the receipt or generation of a [[financial return]]'' in exchange for [[Work (project management)|work]] and acceptance of [[risk]]. Notable exceptions include [[cooperative]] enterprises and [[government-owned corporation|state-owned enterprise]]s. [[Socialist]] systems involve either [[government agencies]], public ownership, state-ownership or direct worker ownership of enterprises and assets that would be run as businesses in a capitalist economy. The distinction between these institutions and a business is that socialist institutions often have alternative or additional goals aside from maximizing or turning a profit.
 
The [[etymology]] of "business" relates to the state of being busy either as an individual or society as a whole, doing commercially [[viable]] and profitable work. The term "business" has at least three usages, depending on the scope&nbsp;— the singular usage (above) to mean a particular [[company]] or [[corporation]], the generalized usage to refer to a particular [[market sector]], such as "the music business" and compound forms such as [[agribusiness]], or the broadest meaning to include all activity by the community of suppliers of goods and services. However, the exact definition of business, like much else in the [[philosophy of business]], is a matter of debate. <!-- This article is concerned primarily with the first definition of individual businesses, but also contains links to general business and management topics, in the sense of the second definition.-->
 
[[Business Studies]], the study of the [[management]] of individuals to maintain collective [[Productivity (economics)|productivity]] to accomplish particular creative and [[product (business)|productive]] goals (usually to generate profit), is taught as an [[academia|academic]] subject in many schools.
 
==Basic forms of ownership==
Although forms of business ownership vary by [[jurisdiction]], there are several common forms:
* '''Sole proprietorship:''' A [[sole proprietorship]] is a business owned by one person. The owner may operate on his or her own or may employ others. The owner of the business has personal [[legal liability|liability]] of the debts incurred by the business.
* '''Partnership:''' A [[partnership]] is a form of business in which two or more people operate for the common goal which is often making profit. In most forms of partnerships, each partner has personal liability of the debts incurred by the business. There are three typical classifications of partnerships: [[general partnership]]s, [[limited partnership]]s, and [[limited liability partnership]]s.
* '''Corporation:''' A [[corporation]] is a [[limited liability]] entity that has a separate [[legal personality]] from its members. A corporation can be organized for-profit or not-for-profit. A corporation is owned by multiple [[shareholder]]s and is overseen by a [[board of directors]], which hires the business's managerial staff. In addition to privately-owned corporate models, there are [[government-owned corporation|state-owned corporate]] models.
* '''Cooperative:''' Often referred to as a "co-op", a [[cooperative]] is a limited liability entity that can organize for-profit or not-for-profit. A cooperative differs from a corporation in that it has members, as opposed to shareholders, who share decision-making authority. Cooperatives are typically classified as either [[consumer cooperative]]s or [[worker cooperative]]s. Cooperatives are fundamental to the ideology of [[economic democracy]].
 
For a country-by-country listing of legally recognized business forms, see [[Types of business entity]].
 
==Classifications==
[[File:View of Wall Street.jpg|thumb|250px|[[Wall Street]], [[Manhattan]] is the location of the [[New York Stock Exchange]] and is often used as a [[symbol]] for the world of business.]]
 
There are many types of businesses, and because of this, businesses are classified in many ways. One of the most common focuses on the primary profit-generating activities of a business:
* [[Agriculture]] and [[mining]] businesses are concerned with the production of raw material, such as plants or minerals.
* [[Financial]] businesses include banks and other companies that generate profit through investment and management of [[Capital (economics)|capital]].
* [[Information business]]es generate profits primarily from the resale of intellectual property and include [[movie studio]]s, publishers and packaged software companies.
* [[Manufacturer]]s produce [[product (business)|products]], from [[raw material]]s or component parts, which they then sell at a profit. Companies that make physical [[goods]], such as cars or pipes, are considered manufacturers.
* [[Real estate]] businesses generate profit from the selling, renting, and development of properties, homes, and buildings.
* [[Retail]]ers and [[distribution (business)|Distributors]] act as middle-men in getting goods produced by manufacturers to the intended consumer, generating a profit as a result of providing sales or distribution services. Most consumer-oriented stores and catalogue companies are distributors or retailers. ''See also:'' [[Franchising]]
* [[Service Sector|Service businesses]] offer intangible goods or services and typically generate a profit by charging for labor or other services provided to government, other businesses or [[consumers]]. Organizations ranging from house decorators to consulting firms to restaurants and even to entertainers are types of service businesses.
* [[Transport]]ation businesses deliver goods and individuals from location to location, generating a profit on the transportation costs
* [[Utilities]] produce public services, such as heat, electricity, or sewage treatment, and are usually government chartered.
 
There are many other divisions and subdivisions of businesses. The authoritative list of business types for North America is generally considered to be the [[North American Industry Classification System]], or NAICS. The equivalent European Union list is the NACE.
 
==Management==
 
The study of the efficient and effective [[Business Operations|operation of a business]] is called [[management]]. The main branches of management are [[finance|financial management]], [[marketing|marketing management]], [[organizational studies|human resource management]], [[strategic management]], [[manufacturing|production management]], service management, [[information technology management]], and [[business intelligence]].
 
===Reforming State Enterprises===
 
In recent decades, assets and enterprises that were run by various states have been modeled after business enterprises. In 2003, the [[People's Republic of China]] reformed 80% of its [[state-owned enterprises]] and modeled them on a company-type management system.<ref>http://english.people.com.cn/data/China_in_brief/Economy/Major%20Industries.html</ref> Many state institutions and enterprises in China and Russia have been transformed into joint-stock companies, with part of their shares being listed on public stock markets.
 
==Government regulation==
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[[File:London.bankofengland.arp.jpg|thumb|250px|The [[Bank of England]] in [[Threadneedle Street]], [[London]], [[England]].]]
Most legal [[jurisdiction]]s specify the forms of ownership that a business can take, creating a body of [[commercial law]] for each type.
 
===Organizing===
The major factors affecting how a business is organized are usually:
* '''The size and scope of the business''', and its anticipated management and ownership. Generally a smaller business is more flexible, while larger businesses, or those with wider ownership or more formal structures, will usually tend to be organized as partnerships or (more commonly) corporations. In addition a business which wishes to raise money on a [[stock market]] or to be owned by a wide range of people will often be required to adopt a specific legal form to do so.
* '''The sector and country.''' Private profit making businesses are different from government owned bodies. In some countries, certain businesses are legally obliged to be organized certain ways.
* '''[[Limited liability]].''' [[Corporations]], limited liability partnerships, and other specific types of business organizations protect their owners from business failure by doing business under a separate legal entity with certain legal protections. In contrast, unincorporated businesses or persons working on their own are usually not so protected.
* '''Tax advantages.''' Different structures are treated differently in tax law, and may have advantages for this reason.
* '''Disclosure and compliance requirements'''. Different business structures may be required to make more or less information public (or reported to relevant authorities), and may be bound to comply with different rules and regulations.
 
Many businesses are operated through a separate entity such as a corporation, limited partnership or limited liability company. Most legal jurisdictions allow people to organize such an entity by filing certain charter documents with the relevant Secretary of State or equivalent and complying with certain other ongoing obligations. The relationships and legal rights of [[shareholder]]s, limited partners, or members are governed partly by the charter documents and partly by the law of the jurisdiction where the entity is organized. Generally speaking, shareholders in a corporation, limited partners in a limited partnership, and members in a limited liability company are shielded from [[personal liability]] for the debts and obligations of the entity, which is legally treated as a separate "person." This means that unless there is misconduct, the owner's own possessions are strongly protected in law, if the business does not succeed.
 
Where two or more individuals own a business together but have failed to organize a more specialized form of vehicle, they will be treated as a general partnership. The terms of a partnership are partly governed by a partnership agreement if one is created, and partly by the law of the jurisdiction where the partnership is located. No paperwork or filing is necessary to create a partnership, and without an agreement, the relationships and legal rights of the partners will be entirely governed by the law of the jurisdiction where the partnership is located.
 
A single person who owns and runs a business is commonly known as a ''sole proprietor'', whether he or she owns it directly or through a formally organized entity.
 
A few relevant factors to consider in deciding how to operate a business include:
 
#General partners in a partnership (other than a limited liability partnership), plus anyone who personally owns and operates a business without creating a separate legal entity, are personally liable for the debts and obligations of the business.
#Generally, corporations are required to pay tax just like "real" people. In some tax systems, this can give rise to so-called [[double taxation]], because first the corporation pays tax on the profit, and then when the corporation distributes its profits to its owners, individuals have to include dividends in their income when they complete their personal tax returns, at which point a second layer of income tax is imposed.
#In most countries, there are laws which treat small corporations differently than large ones. They may be exempt from certain legal filing requirements or labor laws, have simplified procedures in specialized areas, and have simplified, advantageous, or slightly different tax treatment.
#To "go public" (sometimes called [[Initial public offering|IPO]]) -- which basically means to allow a part of the business to be owned by a wider range of investors or the public in general—you must organize a separate entity, which is usually required to comply with a tighter set of laws and procedures. Most public entities are corporations that have sold shares, but increasingly there are also public LLCs that sell units (sometimes also called shares), and other more exotic entities as well (for example, [[REIT]]s in the USA, [[Unit Trust]]s in the UK). However, you cannot take a general partnership "public."
 
===Commercial law===
Most commercial transactions are governed by a very detailed and well-established body of rules that have evolved over a very long period of time, it being the case that governing trade and commerce was a strong driving force in the creation of law and courts in Western civilization.
 
As for other laws that regulate or impact businesses, in many countries it is all but impossible to chronicle them all in a single reference source. There are laws governing treatment of labor and generally relations with employees, safety and protection issues ([[OSHA]] or [[Health and Safety]]), anti-discrimination laws (age, gender, disabilities, race, and in some jurisdictions, sexual orientation), minimum wage laws, [[Trade union|union]] laws, workers compensation laws, and annual vacation or working hours time.
 
In some specialized businesses, there may also be licenses required, either due to special laws that govern entry into certain trades, occupations or professions, which may require special education, or by local governments. Professions that require special licenses range from law and medicine to flying airplanes to selling liquor to radio broadcasting to selling investment securities to selling used cars to roofing. Local jurisdictions may also require special licenses and taxes just to operate a business without regard to the type of business involved.
 
Some businesses are subject to ongoing special regulation. These industries include, for example, public utilities, investment securities, banking, insurance, broadcasting, aviation, and health care providers. Environmental regulations are also very complex and can impact many kinds of businesses in unexpected ways.
 
===Capital===
When businesses need to raise money (called '[[Capital (economics)|capital]]'), more laws come into play. A highly complex set of laws and regulations govern the offer and sale of investment [[securities]] (the means of raising money) in most Western countries. These regulations can require disclosure of a lot of specific financial and other information about the business and give buyers certain remedies. Because "securities" is a very broad term, most investment transactions will be potentially subject to these laws, unless a special exemption is available.
 
Capital may be raised through private means, by public offer (IPO) on a [[stock exchange]], or in many other ways. Major stock exchanges include the Shanghai Stock Exchange, Singapore Exchange, Hong Kong Stock Exchange, [[New York Stock Exchange]] and [[Nasdaq]] (USA), the [[London Stock Exchange]] (UK), the [[Tokyo Stock Exchange]] (Japan), and so on. Most countries with capital markets have at least one.
 
Business that have gone "public" are subject to extremely detailed and complicated regulation about their internal governance (such as how executive officers' compensation is determined) and when and how information is disclosed to the public and their shareholders. In the United States, these regulations are primarily implemented and enforced by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Other Western nations have comparable regulatory bodies. The regulations are implemented and enforced by the China Securities Regulation Commission (CSRC), in China. In Singapore, the regulation authority is Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), and in Hong Kong, it is Securities and Futures Commission (SFC).
 
As noted at the beginning, it is impossible to enumerate all of the types of laws and regulations that impact on business today. In fact, these laws have become so numerous and complex, that no business lawyer can learn them all, forcing increasing specialization among corporate attorneys. It is not unheard of for teams of 5 to 10 attorneys to be required to handle certain kinds of corporate transactions, due to the sprawling nature of modern regulation. Commercial law spans general corporate law, employment and labor law, healthcare law, securities law, M&A law (who specialize in acquisitions), tax law, ERISA law (ERISA in the United States governs employee benefit plans), food and drug regulatory law, intellectual property law (specializing in copyrights, patents, trademarks and such), telecommunications law, and more.
 
In Thailand, for example, it is necessary to ''register'' a particular amount of capital for each employee, and pay a fee to the government for the amount of capital registered. There is no legal requirement to prove that this capital actually exists, the only requirement is to pay the fee. Overall, processes like this are detrimental to the development and GDP of a country, but often exist in "feudal" developing countries.
 
===Intellectual property===
Businesses often have important "[[intellectual property]]" that needs protection from competitors for the company to stay profitable. This could require patents or copyrights or preservation of trade secrets. Most businesses have names, logos and similar branding techniques that could benefit from trademarking. Patents and copyrights in the United States are largely governed by federal law, while trade secrets and trademarking are mostly a matter of state law. Because of the nature of intellectual property, a business needs protection in every jurisdiction in which they are concerned about competitors. Many countries are signatories to international [[treaty|treaties]] concerning intellectual property, and thus companies registered in these countries are subject to national laws bound by these treaties.
 
===Exit plans===
Businesses can be bought and sold. Business owners often refer to their plan of disposing of the business as an "exit plan." Common exit plans include [[IPO]]s, [[Management buyout|MBO]]s and [[mergers]] with other businesses. Businesses are rarely [[liquidated]], as it is often very unprofitable to do so.
 
==See also==
{{main|Outline of business}}
 
{{col-begin}}
{{col-3}}
*[[Accounting]]
**[[List of accounting topics]]
*[[Advertising]]
*[[Banking]]
*[[Big business]]
*[[Business acumen]]
*[[Business broker]]
*[[Business ethics]]
**[[List of business ethics, political economy, and philosophy of business topics]]
**[[Social responsibility]]
*[[Business hours]]
*[[Business mediator]]
*[[Business school]]s
*[[Business trip]]
*[[Capitalism]]
*[[Change management analyst]]
*[[Commerce]]
*[[Commercial law]]
**[[List of business law topics]]
*[[Company]]
*[[Cooperative]]
*[[Corporate law]]
*[[Corporation]]
*[[Cost overrun]]
*[[Economics]]
**[[Economic democracy]]
**[[Financial economics]]
**[[List of economics topics]]
*[[Electronic commerce]]
**[[E-business]]
*[[Entrepreneurship]]
*[[Finance]]
**[[List of finance topics]]
{{col-3}}
*[[Franchising]]
*[[Government ownership]]
*[[Human Resources]]
**[[List of human resource management topics]]
*[[Industry]]
*[[Insurance]]
*[[Intellectual property]]
*[[International trade]]
**[[List of international trade topics]]
*[[Investment]]
*[[Limited liability]]
*[[Management]]
**[[List of management topics]]
*[[Management information systems]]
**[[List of information technology management topics]]
*[[Manufacturing]]
**[[List of production topics]]
*[[Marketing]]
**[[List of marketing topics]]
*[[Organizational studies]]
*[[Partnership]]
*[[Real Estate]]
*[[Renewable Energy]]
**[[List of real estate topics]]
*[[Revenue shortfall]]
*[[Small business]]
*[[Sole proprietorship]]
*[[Strategic Management]]
*[[Strategic Planning]]
*[[Types of business entity]]
*[[List of oldest companies]]
{{col-3}}
{{portal|Business and economics|NYSE-floor.jpg}}
{{Wikipedia-Books}}
{{col-end}}
 
==Notes and references==
{{reflist}}
 
==External links==
{{sisterlinks|Business}}
<!--interwiki links follow-->
<!-- '''Unlimited Liability:''' a situation in which owners of a business are liable for all the debts that the business may incur.
 
'''Limited Liability:''' a situation in which the liability of the owners of a business is limited to the full paid-up value of the share capital. -->
* [http://www.bbb.org/ Better Business Bureau] US & Canada
* [http://www.dmoz.org/News/Current_Events/Business_and_Economy/ Business Current Events] Open Directory
* [http://www.doingbusiness.org/ Doing Business project - World Bank/IFC]
* [http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=SDBS_BDI OECD Business Demography Statistics]
 
[[Category:Business| ]]
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