د "باربادوس" د بڼو تر مېنځ توپير

۲۷٬۱۲۰ ټکی لري شوه ،  ۸ کاله مخکې
د سمون لنډيز پرته
و (r2.7.2+) (روباټ لرې کول: ks:बार्बाडोस)
{{Barbados infobox}}
'''بارباډوس''' د کارېبين سمندرګي په ختيځ او د اطلس سمندر په لوېديځه سيمه کې يو ټاپويي هېواد دی. دا هېواد د لېسر انټاليس د ټاپوانو يوه برخه ده چې د همدغو ټاپوانو په لړۍ کې د سېنټ لوسيا او سېنټ وېنسېنټ او ګرېنادينز د دغې ټاپويي هېواد نژدې ګاونډي هېوادونه دي. دا ټاپو ۴۳۰ کيلومتره مربع ارتوالی لري. د دغه ټاپويي هېواد لوړې څوکې د همدې ټاپو مرکزي برخې دي. دا هېواد د استوا د کرښې سهېل کې په ۱۳° او د اصلي بين النهار په لوېديځ کې په ۵۹°، او د وېنزوېلا هېواد سهېل لوېديځې سيمې نه نژدې 434.5 [[کيلومتره]] ليرې پروت دی.
 
Barbados is predominantly composed of [[coral]] and [[limestone]]. It is tropical with constant [[trade wind]]s and contains of some [[marsh]]es and [[mangrove]] [[swamp]]s. Some parts of the island's interior are also dotted with large sugarcane estates and wide [[pastures]] with many good views to the sea.
باربېډوس په عمده توګه د کورال او لايمسټون څخه منځ ته راغلی . دا يوه د وچې تودې هوا يا حاره هوا کله کله د لمدې کبلې (سوامپ) اړونده ټاپو دی .
Barbados has one of the highest standards of living and literacy rates in the world and, according to the [[United Nations Development Programme]] (UNDP), is currently the No. 1 developing country in the world. The island is a major tourist destination.
 
== History ==
{{main|History of Barbados}}
The earliest inhabitants of Barbados were [[Amerindian]] nomads. Three waves of migrants moved north toward [[North America]]. The first wave was of the [[Saladoid]]-[[Barrancoid]] group, who were farmers, fishermen, and ceramists that arrived by [[canoe]] from [[South America]] ([[Venezuela]]'s [[Orinoco River|Orinoco Valley]]) around [[350|350 CE]]. The [[Arawak]] people were the second wave of migrants, arriving from South America around [[800|800 CE]]. Arawak settlements on the island include [[Stroud Point]], [[Chandler Bay]], [[Saint Luke's Gully]], and [[Mapp's Cave]]. According to accounts by descendants of the aboriginal Arawak tribes on other local islands, the original name for Barbados was '''Ichirouganaim'''. In the 13th century, the Caribs arrived from South America in the third wave, displacing both the Arawak and the Salodoid-Barrancoid. For the next few centuries, the Caribs—like the Arawak and the Salodoid-Barrancoid—lived in isolation on the island.
 
The name "Barbados" comes from a [[Portuguese colonization of the Americas|Portuguese explorer]] named Pedro Campos in [[1536]], who originally called the island '''Los Barbados''' ("The Bearded Ones"), upon seeing the appearance of the island's [[fig]] trees, whose long hanging aerial roots he thought resembled beards. Between Campos' sighting in 1536 and 1550, [[Spanish colonization of the Americas|Spanish]] [[conquistadors]] seized many Caribs on Barbados and used them as [[Slavery|slave labor]] on [[plantation]]s. Other Caribs fled the island, moving elsewhere.
 
British sailors who landed on Barbados in the 1620s at the site of present-day [[Holetown]] on the Caribbean coast found the island uninhabited. From the arrival of the first British settlers in [[1627]]–[[1628]] until independence in [[1966]], Barbados was under uninterrupted British control. Nevertheless, Barbados always enjoyed a large measure of local autonomy. Its [[Barbados House of Assembly|House of Assembly]] began meeting in [[1639]]. Among the initial important British figures was Sir [[William Courten]].
 
Large numbers of [[Celts|Celtic]] people, mainly from [[Ireland]] and [[Scotland]], went to Barbados as [[indentured servants]]. Over the next several centuries the Celtic population was used as a buffer between the [[Anglo-Saxon]] plantation owners and the larger [[African]] population, variously serving as members of the Colonial militia and playing a strong role as allies of the larger African slave population in a long string of colonial rebellions. The modern descendants of this original slave population are sometimes derisively referred to as [[Red Legs]] and are some of the poorest inhabitants of modern Barbados. There has also been large scale intermarriage between the African and Celtic populations on the islands. Because the Africans could withstand tropical diseases and the climate much better than the white slave population, and also because those poor whites who had or acquired the means to emigrate often did so, Barbados turned from mainly Celtic in the 17th century to overwhelmingly black by the 20th century.
 
As the [[sugar]] industry developed into the main commercial enterprise, Barbados was divided into large plantation estates that replaced the small holdings of the early British settlers. Some of the displaced farmers relocated to British colonies in North America, most notably [[South Carolina]]. To work the plantations, West Africans were transported and enslaved on Barbados and other Caribbean islands. The [[slave trade]] ceased in 1804. Thirty years later slavery was abolished in the British Empire in [[1834]]. In Barbados and the rest of the British West Indian colonies, full emancipation from slavery was preceded by an apprenticeship period that lasted six years.
 
Plantation owners and merchants of British descent dominated local politics. It was not until the 1930s that the descendants of emancipated slaves began a movement for political rights. One of the leaders of this movement, Sir [[Grantley Adams]], founded the [[Barbados Labour Party]] in [[1938]].
 
Progress toward more democratic government for Barbados was made in [[1951]], when universal adult suffrage was introduced, followed by steps toward increased self-government, and in [[1961]], Barbados achieved internal autonomy.
 
From [[1958]] to [[1962]], Barbados was one of the ten members of the [[West Indies Federation]], and Sir [[Grantley Adams]] served as its first and only prime minister. When the federation was dissolved, Barbados reverted to its former status as a [[self-governing colony]]. Following several attempts to form another federation composed of Barbados and the Leeward and Windward Islands, Barbados negotiated its own independence at a constitutional conference with the United Kingdom in June [[1966]]. After years of peaceful and democratic progress, Barbados became an independent state within the [[Commonwealth of Nations]] on [[November 30]], [[1966]]
 
== Politics ==
{{main|Politics of Barbados}}
[[Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom|Queen Elizabeth II]] is nominally recognized as Queen of Barbados, [[head of state]] as represented by a [[Governor General]]. In Barbados the Queen is styled "By the Grace of God, Queen of Barbados and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth." The present government is proposing that Barbados become a [[republic]] within the [[Commonwealth of Nations]], with a ceremonial [[president]] replacing the Queen. This issue still being hotly debated as the island has been governmentally autonomous for decades.
 
Barbados has been an independent state in the Commonwealth since [[November 30]], [[1966]], and as such functions as a parliamentary democracy modelled after the British [[Westminster system]]. Control of the government is held by the Cabinet and is responsible to the Parliament, which comrpises a 30-seat [[Barbados House of Assembly|House of Assembly]] and a 21-seat [[Senate of Barbados|Senate]]. Barbados is one of the most secure democracies in the Caribbean{{fact}}. [[Executive branch|Executive power]] is in the hands of the [[prime minister]] and his [[cabinet (government)|cabinet]]. The prime minister is usually the leader of the winning party in the elections for the House of Assembly, whose members are elected every five years. The Senate has 21 members, and its members are appointed by the governor general.
 
Barbados is a full and participating member of the [[Caribbean Community]] (CARICOM).
 
== Geography ==
{{main|Geography of Barbados}}
[[دوتنه:Barbados map.png|right|Map of Barbados]]
Barbados is a relatively flat island, rising gently to central highland region, the highest point being [[Mount Hillaby]] at 336 [[metre]]s (1,100 [[foot (unit of length)|ft]]) above sea level. The island is located in a slightly eccentric position in the [[Atlantic Ocean]] compared to other [[Caribbean]] islands. The [[climate]] is tropical, with a rainy season from June to October.
 
Though one might assume the island deals with severe tropical storms and hurricanes during the rainy season it actually does not. The island gets brushed or hit every 3.09 years and the average number of years between direct hurricane hits is once every 26.6 years.
 
In the parish of [[Saint Michael Parish, Barbados|Saint Michael]] lies Barbados' chief city [[Bridgetown]], which is the nation's capital. Locally [[Bridgetown]] is sometimes referred to as "The City" or "B-town", and the most common reference is simply "'Town". Other towns include [[Holetown]], in the parish of [[Saint James Parish, Barbados|Saint James]] [[Oistins]], in the parish of [[Christ Church]] and [[Speightstown, Barbados|Speightstown]], in the parish of [[Saint Peter Parish, Barbados|Saint Peter]].
 
The island is 23 kilometres (14 [[mile|mi]]) at its widest point, and about 34 kilometres (21 mi) long.
 
== Parishes ==
{{main|Parishes of Barbados}}
Barbados is divided into eleven [[parish]]es: [[Christ Church Parish, Barbados|Christ Church]], [[Saint Andrew Parish, Barbados|Saint Andrew]], [[Saint George Parish, Barbados|Saint George]], [[Saint James Parish, Barbados|Saint James]], [[Saint John Parish, Barbados|Saint John]], [[Saint Joseph Parish, Barbados|Saint Joseph]], [[Saint Lucy Parish, Barbados|Saint Lucy]], [[Saint Michael Parish, Barbados|Saint Michael]], [[Saint Peter Parish, Barbados|Saint Peter]], [[Saint Philip Parish, Barbados|Saint Philip]], and [[Saint Thomas Parish, Barbados|Saint Thomas]].
<br /><br />
 
== Economy ==
{{main|Economy of Barbados}}
Historically, the economy of Barbados had been dependent on [[sugarcane]] cultivation and related activities, but production in recent years has been diversified into the [[manufacturing]] and [[tourism]] sectors. Offshore finance and information services have become increasingly important foreign exchange earners, and there is also a healthy interest into the island's light manufacturing sector. In the last ten years the Government has been seen as business-friendly and economically sound. Since the late 1990s the island has seen an increasing construction boom, the island began to see new hotels, redevelopments, new homes, office complexes, condominiums, and mansions being developed across the island.
 
[[وېشنيزه:بازبادوس]]
The government continues its efforts to reduce [[unemployment]], encourage direct foreign investment, and privatize remaining state-owned enterprises. Unemployment has been reduced from high levels of around 14 percent in the past to under 10%.
 
The economy contracted in [[2001]] and [[2002]] due to slowdowns in tourism, consumer spending and the impact of the [[September 11, 2001 attacks]], but the economy rebounded in [[2003]] and showed growth for [[2004]]. Traditional trading partners include [[Canada]], the [[Caribbean Community]] (especially [[Trinidad and Tobago]]), the [[United Kingdom]], and the [[United States]].
 
Business links and investment flows have become substantial, as of 2003 the island saw from [[Canada]] CAN$25 Billion in investment holdings, placing it as one of Canada's top five destinations of Canadian [[Foreign Direct Investment]] (FDI). Businessman [[Eugene Melnyk]] of [[Toronto]] in [[Ontario]], [[Canada]], is said to be Barbados' richest permanent resident.
 
In 2004 it was announced that Barbados' [[Kensington Oval]] will be one of the final venues hosting the [[2007 cricket World Cup|2007 Cricket World Cup]].
 
It is thought the year 2006 will be one of the busiest years for building construction ever in Barbados, as the building-boom on the island has entered a final stage for several multi-million dollar projects across the island. [http://www.nationnews.com/story/285076846570648.php].
 
== Characteristics and tourist information ==
The island of Barbados has a single major [[airport]], the '' [[Grantley Adams International Airport|Sir Grantley Adams International Airport (GAIA)]] ''([[IATA]] identifier [[BGI]]). The ''Grantley Adams'' Airport receives daily flights by several major airlines, from points around the globe, as well as several smaller regional commercial airlines and charters. The airport serves as the main air-transportation hub for the Eastern Caribbean. The airport is currently under-going a US$100 million upgrade and expansion.
 
The island is well developed and there are many local quality-hotels known internationally which offer world-class accommodations. Timeshares are available, and many of the smaller local hotels and private villas which dot the island have space available if booked months in advance. The southern and western coasts of Barbados are popular, with its calm light blue Caribbean sea and fine white and pinkish sandy beaches. Along the island's east coast the [[Atlantic Ocean]] side are tumbling waves which are perfect for light [[surfing]], but a little bit risky due to under-tow currents.
 
[[Shopping]] districts are another treat in Barbados, with ample duty-free shopping. There is also a festive nightlife available in mainly tourist areas like the Saint Lawrence Gap. Other attractions include wildlife reserves, jewelry stores, [[scuba]] diving, helicopter rides, [[golf]], [[festival]]s, sight seeing, cave exploration, exotic [[drink]]s and fine [[clothes]] [[shopping]].
 
=== Attractions, landmarks and points of interest ===
Name / Parish Location:
{| valign=top
|-
|width=200 valign=top style="font-size:90%;"|
- '''Christ Church'''
* [[Barbados Historical Museum]]
* [[Garrison Savannah]]
* [[Graeme Hall Swamp]]
* [[St. Lawrence Gap]]
 
- '''St. Andrew'''
* [[Cherry Tree Hill]]
* [[Morgan Lewis Windmill]]
 
|width=200 valign=top style="font-size:90%;"|
- '''St. George'''
* [[Gun Hill Signal Station]]
* [[Francia Great House]]
* [[Orchid World]]
 
- '''St. James'''
* [[Folkestone Marine Park]]
 
- '''St. John'''
* [[Codrington College]]
* [[St. John Parish Church]]
 
|width=200 valign=top style="font-size:90%;"|
- '''St. Joseph'''
* [[Andromeda Gardens]]
* [[Flower Forest]]
* [[Hackleton's Cliff]]
 
- '''St. Lucy'''
* [[Animal Flower Cave]]
* [[Mount Gay|Mount Gay Rum Distilleries]]
 
|width=200 valign=top style="font-size:90%;"|
- '''St. Michael'''
* [[Bridgetown Synagogue|Bridgetown Synagogue and Cemetery]]
* [[Bussa Emancipation Statue]]
* [[Kensington Oval]]
* [[Sharon Moravian Church]]
 
- '''St. Peter'''
* [[Barbados Wildlife Reserve]]
* [[Farley Hill National Park]]
 
- '''St. Philip'''
* [[Sunbury Plantation]]
 
- '''St. Thomas'''
* [[Harrison's Cave]]
* [[Welchman Hall Gully]]
|}
''List of'': [[List of Cities, towns and villages in Barbados|Cities, towns and villages]] in Barbados.
 
== Transportation ==
Transportation on the island is good, with 'route taxis', called "ZR's" (pronounced "Zed-Rs"), travelling to most points on the island. These small buses can at times be crowded, but will usually take the more scenic routes to destinations. These buses generally depart from the capital [[Bridgetown]] or from [[Speightstown, Barbados|Speightstown]] in the northern part of the island.
 
Buses are abundant in Barbados. There are three bus systems running seven days a week (though less frequently on Sundays), and a ride on any of them costs $1.50 BDS. The smaller buses from the two privately owned systems ("ZR's" and "minibuses") can make change; the larger blue buses from the government-operated Barbados Transport Board system cannot. Most routes require a connection in Bridgetown. However, if you wait long enough, you might find a bus that bypasses the capital and takes you right to your destination. Drivers are generally happy to help you get where you're going; however, some drivers within the competitive privately owned systems are reluctant to instruct you to use competing services, even if those would be preferable.
 
Competition for patrons extends to the bus terminals (sometimes just a parking lot full of buses); it is normal for the 'ZR' bus conductors to attempt to escort you to his vehicle and engage in loud altercations with other drivers and conductors, in competition for your patronage. These altercations, though sometimes dramatic, are less problematic than they usually seem to the unaccustomed.
 
Some hotels also provide visitors with shuttles to points of interest on the island. Hotel shuttles generally leave right outside of the hotel's lobby. The island also has an abundance of taxis-for-hire, although visitors staying on the island may find this an expensive option. Visitors also have the option of transport by car, presuming that they have a valid driver's license (issued in their native country.) There are several locally owned and operated vehicle rental agencies in Barbados.
 
== Demographics ==
{{main|Demographics of Barbados}}
Barbados has a population of about 279,000 and a growth rate of 0.33% (Mid-2005 estimates). Close to 90 percent of all Barbadians (also known colloquially as ''Bajan'') are of [[African]] descent ("Afro-Bajans"), mostly descendants of the [[slavery|slave]] labourers on the sugar plantations. The remainder of the population includes groups of [[Europe]]ans ("Anglo-Bajans" / "Euro-Bajans"), [[Asia]]ns, Bajan Hindus and Muslims, and an influential Middle Eastern ("Arab-Bajans") group mainly of [[Syria]]n and [[Lebanon|Lebanese]] descent.
 
Other groups in Barbados include people from the [[United States]], [[Canada]], and [[expatriate]]s from [[Latin America]]. Barbadians who return after years of residence in the U.S. are called "Bajan Yankees"; this term is considered derogatory by some.
 
The official language of Barbados is [[English language|English]] but most Bajans speak their national language, [[Bajan]] and while most Barbadians are [[Protestant]] Christians, chiefly of the [[Anglican Church]], there are other Protestant, [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholic]], [[Hinduism|Hindu]] and [[Islam|Muslim]] minorities. Barbados is currently a chief emigration location from the [[South America]]n nation of [[Guyana]].
 
== Culture ==
{{main|Culture of Barbados}}
The influence of the English on Barbados is more noticeable than on other islands in the West Indies. A good example of this is the island's national sport: [[cricket]]. Barbados has brought forth several great cricket players, including [[Garfield Sobers]] and [[Frank Worrell]].
 
Citizens are officially called Barbadian, however residents of Barbados colloquially refer to themselves or the products of the country as "Bajan". The term "Bajan", may have come from a localized pronunciation of the word Barbadian which at times can sound more like "Bar-bajan". The term Barbadian, is used less frequently than is "Bajan".
 
The largest [[Carnival]] cultural events which take place in Barbados are the ''Congaline Festival'' and ''Crop Over Festival'' as known internationally.
 
As is the case in many of the other Caribbean and Latin American countries, Carnival is an important event for many people on the island, as well as the thousands of tourists that flock to the island to participate in the annual events.
 
The smaller of the two events is the ''Congaline Festival'', which takes place during the last week of March. The ''Crop Over'' Carnival which includes various musical competitions, and other traditional activities usually kicks into high gear from the beginning of July, and ends in its entirety during the first week of August.
 
The Crop Over festival closes with Grand Kadooment a large parade on the final day of festivities.
:''See also: [[Music of Barbados]]''
 
== Sport ==
There are several sports played in Barbados of which cricket is arguably the favourite (like many other Caribbean countries).
Barbados will be playing host to the 2007 Cricket World Cup final,as well as six "Super Eight" matches and several warm-up matches. The final is schedule to take place on Saturday 28 April, 2007.
 
== National symbols ==
[[دوتنه:Flower4.JPG|thumb|100px|A yellow and red Poinciana]]
The national flower is the [[Poinciana]] (''Caesalpinia pulcherrima'' (L.) Sw. , Pride of Barbados), which grows across the island of Barbados.
 
 
=== Golden Shield ===
The Golden Shield in the Coat of Arms carries two "Pride of Barbados" orchids and the "bearded" fig tree (''[[Ficus citrifolia]]'' or ''Ficus barbata'') which was common on the island at the time of its settlement by the British and contributed to Barbados being so named.
 
=== Coat of arms ===
The [[coat of arms]] depicts two animals which are supporting the shield. On the left is a [[dolphin]] (dexter); symbolic of the fishing industry and sea-going past of Barbados. On the right is a [[pelican]] (sinister); symbolic of a small island named [[Pelican Island]] that once existed off the coast of Bridgetown. Above the shield is the helmet of Barbados with an extended arm clutching two [[sugar-cane]] stalks. The "cross" formation made by the cane stalks represents the cross which [[Saint Andrew]] was crucified. On the base of the Coat of Arms reads "Pride and Industry" in reference to the motto of the country.
 
== National Heroes ==
There are '''10 Barbados national heroes'''.
* Sir [[Errol Barrow]]
* [[Grantley Herbert Adams|Sir Grantley Adams]] ([http://www.barbados.gov.bb/grantleya.htm])
* [[Bussa]]
* [[Sarah Ann Gill]]
* [[Samuel Jackson Prescod]]
* Sir [[Frank Walcott]]
* [[Charles Duncan O'Neal]]
* Sir [[Garfield Sobers]]
* [[Clement Payne]]
* Sir [[Hugh Springer]]
 
''See also: [[List of Eastern Caribbean people#Barbados|List of Eastern Caribbean people]]''
 
==<br clear="all">International rankings==
* [http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/docs/notesanddefs.html CIA World Factbook - GDP] - ([[Purchasing power parity|PPP]]) per capita:
** [[2004]]: ranked 59 of 232 countries & territories -- $ 15,700 [http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/rankorder/2004rank.html 59th]
* [[The Economist|Economist, The]], Worldwide quality-of-life index:
** [[2005]] ranked 33 out of 111 countries [http://www.economist.com/theworldin/international/displayStory.cfm?story_id=3372495&d=2005 33rd]
* [[Heritage Foundation]]/[[The Wall Street Journal]], [[Index of Economic Freedom]] [http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/ countries]:
** [[2005]] ranked 32 of 155 countries [http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/country.cfm?id=Barbados 32nd]
* [[International Telecommunication Union]], Digital Access Index (Top 10 in Americas):
** [[2002]]: ranked 45 of 178 countries [http://www.itu.int/newsarchive/press_releases/2003/30.html 45th]
* [[Reporters without borders]]:
** [[2004]]: N/A [http://www.rsf.fr/article.php3?id_article=11715]
* [[Save the Children]], State of the World’s Mothers:
** [[2004]]: N/A [http://www.savethechildren.org/mothers/report_2004/images/pdf/SOWM_2004_final.pdf]
* [[Transparency International]], Corruption Perceptions Index:
** [[2004]]: ranked 21 out of 146 countries surveyed [http://www.transparency.org/pressreleases_archive/2004/2004.10.20.cpi.en.html 21st]
* [[UN]], [[Human Development Index|Human Development Index (HDI)]]:
** [[2004]]: ranked 29th out of 177 countries [http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2004/pdf/presskit/HDR04_PKE_HDI.pdf 29th] (3rd in the Americas, after [[Canada]] and the [[United States]]
** [[2003]]: ranked 27th out of 175 countries [http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2003/pdf/presskit/HDR03_PKE_HDI.pdf 27th]
** [[2002]]: ranked 31st out of 173 countries [http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2002/en/pdf/HDR%20PR_HDI.pdf 31st]
** [[2001]]: ranked 31st out of 162 countries [http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2001/en/pdf/hdi.pdf 31st]
** [[2000]]: ranked 30th out of 174 countries [http://www.undp.org/hdr2000/english/presskit/hdi.pdf 30th]
** [[1999]]: ranked 29th out of 174 countries [http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/1999/en/pdf/hdr_1999_back1.pdf 29th]
** [[1998]]: N/A
* [[World Economic Forum]], Global Competitiveness Report/Growth Competitiveness Index:
** [[2004]]-[[2005]]: N/A [http://www.weforum.org/site/homepublic.nsf/Content/Global+Competitiveness+Programme%5CGlobal+Competitiveness+Report]
* [[World Bank]]:
** Total [[List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita|GDP per capita]]
*** [[2003]] (World Bank): ranked 38 -- $ 15,712
** Total [[List of countries by GDP (nominal)|GDP (nominal)]]
*** [[2003]]: ranked 138 -- $ 2,628
 
{{CIA WFB 2000}}
 
{{CIA WFB 2003}}
 
== Further reading ==
* Scott, Caroline 1999. ''Insight Guide Barbados''. Discovery Channel and Insight Guides; 4th edition, Singapore. ISBN 0-88729-033-7
* O'Shaughnessy, Andrew Jackson 2000. ''An Empire Divided - The American Revolution and the British Caribbean''. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia ISBN 0-8122-1732-2
* Hamshere, Cyril 1972. ''The British In the Caribbean''. Harvard University Pres, Massachusetts USA. ISBN 674082354
* Rogozinski, Jan 1999. ''A Brief History of the Caribbean - From the Arawak and Carib to the Present''. Revised version New York, USA. ISBN 0-8160-3811-2
* Burns, Sir Alan 1965. ''History of the British West Indies''. George Allen and Unwin Ltd, London England.
 
== See also ==
* ''List of: [[List of Cities, towns and villages in Barbados|Cities, towns and villages]] in Barbados.''
* [[List of Eastern Caribbean people#Barbados|List of Barbadians]], (persons from Barbados.)
* [[Nationality law of Barbados]]
* [[Foreign relations of Barbados]]
* [[Communications in Barbados]]
* [[Transportation in Barbados]]
* [[Military of Barbados]]
 
== External links ==
{{sisterlinks|Barbados}}
 
=== Government ===
* [http://www.barbados.gov.bb/ Barbados Government Information Network] - official website
* [http://www.barbadosparliament.com/ Parliament of Barbados official website]
* [http://www.centralbank.org.bb/ Central Bank of Barbados website]
* [http://www.barbadosparliament.com/sm_facts_abt_barbados.php Parliament of Barbados - Some facts about Barbados]
* [http://www.bidc.com/ Barbados Investment and Development Corporation]
 
=== Directories ===
* [http://www.totallybarbados.com Totally Barbados - Online Island Guide]
* [http://www.accessbarbados.com Barbados Vacation Travel Guide & Business Directory]
* [http://nigel.search.co.tt/ the Barbados Webdirectory]
* [http://www.bcslbarbados.com/barbados.aspx Points and places of Interest when in Barbados]
* [http://www.bdscham.com/ Barbados Chamber of Commerce and Industry]
* [http://barbados.allinfoabout.com/ All Info About Barbados - General Info on Barbados]
* [http://dmoz.org/Regional/Caribbean/Barbados Open Directory Project - ''Barbados] directory category
 
=== Tourism ===
* {{wikitravel}}
* [http://www.visitbarbados.org/ Official website of The Barbados Tourism Authority]
* [http://barbadostourisminvestment.com/ Barbados Tourism Investment] Inc.
 
=== Other ===
* [http://www.hurricanecity.com/city/barbados.htm Hurricane History of Barbados]
 
{{maplr|13.16|-59.55|Barbados}}
 
See also MapQuest zoom levels 8, 9, and 10.
 
''Maps of Barbados from Caribbean-On-Line.com''
* [http://www.caribbean-on-line.com/islands/br/brmap.shtml Map of Barbados]
{{West_Indies}}
{{caricom}}
 
[[وېشنيزه:Barbados| ]]
[[وېشنيزه:Caribbean countries]]
[[وېشنيزه:Caribbean islands]]
[[وېشنيزه:CARICOM member states]]
[[وېشنيزه:Former British colonies]]
[[وېشنيزه:Island nations]]
[[وېشنيزه:Members of the Commonwealth of Nations]]
[[وېشنيزه:Monarchies]]
 
[[af:Barbados]]
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سمونې