یهود (په عبري: יְהוּדִים، په ISO 259-2 کې چې په لاتیني باندې د عبراني تورو بدلولو لپاره یوه ستندرد لړۍ ده: یهوديم، اسراییلي تلفظ یې:  [jehuˈdim] دی) یا یهودي وګړي یوه توکمیزه-مذهبي ډله او ملیت دی چې له تاریخي اسراییل (یعقوب علیه السلام) او یهودا له نسب څخه د اسراییلیانو او عبرانیانو نه سرچینه اخلي. یهودي توکم، ملیت، او دین یو له بل سره پیاوړې ګډه اړیکه لري، که څه هم چې یهودیت د یهودي وګړو توکمیز مذهب دی، اما سره له دې له نوموړي دین څخه پیروي له ډېرې ټینګې پیروۍ څخه تر هېڅ پورې متغیره ده.[۱][۲][۳][۴][۵][۶][۷][۸][۹][۱۰][۱۱]

یهود د دویمې مخزېږدې زریزې په بهیر کې په منځني ختیځ کې د یوې توکمیزې او مذهبې ډلې په توګه د شام په یوه برخه کې چې د اسراییل د ځمکې په نامه یادېده، راپیدا شول. د لرغوني مصر میرانپتاه نومې ډبرینه لوحه ظاهرً د دې تایید کوي چې یهودي خلکو ان په ۱۳مه مخزېږده پېړۍ کې (د ژېړو د دورې په وروستیو کې) په کنعان کې یو چېرته شتون درلود. اسراییلیانو، د کنعاني وګړو د یوې څانګې په توګه، د اسراییل او یهودا له پاچاهیو سره یو ځای په سیمه کې خپل واک وغځاوه. ځینې په دې اند دي چې دغه کنعان مېشته اسراییلیان له راتلونکو کوچي ډلو سره چې "عبرانیان" بلل کېدل، ګډ شول. د یو شمېر هغو سرچینو په حواله چې د جلا وطنۍ له دورو څخه یې په تفصیل سره یادونه کړې ده، له بابلي اسارتونو او جلاوطنۍ  نه رانیولې بیا تر رومي اشغال او جلاوطني پورې د یهودیانو د تبعید تجربه او په شام کې د یهودو او د دوی د ټاټوبي تر منځ د هغه وخت تاریخي اړیکې د یهودي تاریخ، هویت، کلتور او خاطرو یوه لویه مشخصه وګرځېده. [۱۲][۱۳][۱۴][۱۵][۱۶][۱۷][۱۸]

په ورپسې زریزه کې، تبعید شوې یهودي ټولنې په یو داسې اساس سره چې نیکونه یې چېرته اوسېدل، په دریو لویو فرعي څانګو کې بېرته سره یو ځای شوې: اشکینازي (په مرکزي او ختیځه اروپا کې)، سفاردي (په لومړیو کې په عبراني ټاپووزمه کې)، او میزراحی چې د ختیځیانو په معنی دی (په منځني ختیځ او شمالي افریقا کې) میشت شول. له دویمې نړیوالې جګړې څخه د مخه د نړۍ په کچه د یهودو نفوس په ۱۶.۷ میلیونه شمېر سره خپل اوج ته ورسېد، [لا معتبرې سرچینې ته اړتیا ده] چې په هغه وخت کې یې د نړۍ د نفوس د شاوخوا ۰.۷ سلنې ښودنه ې کوله. د دویمې نړیوالې جګړې په بهیر کې، د اروپا په لر او بر کې  تقریباً شپږ میلیونه یهودیان د نازي جرمني له خوا د هولوکاسټ په ترڅ په سېستماتیک ډول ووژل شول. ، [لا معتبرې سرچینې ته اړتیا ده] له هغه وخته راهیسې، نوموړی نفوس په ورو ورو یو ځل بیا لوړ شوی دی، او د برمن یهودي معلوماتي بانک د ۲۰۱۸ د شمېرنو پر بنسټ، د ۱۴.۶-۱۷.۸ میلیونو تر منځ اټکل شوی دی، چې د نړۍ د نفوس له ۰.۲ سلنې څخه لږ جوړوي. [۱۹][۲۰][۲۱][۲۲][۲۳]

د اسراییلو اوسنی دولت یواځینی هغه هېواد دی چېرته چې یهود د نفوس اکثریت جوړوي. نوموړی دولت په خپلو اساسي قوانينو کې، په ځانګړې توګه د انسان د کرامت او ازادۍ اړوندو قوانینو کې ـــ کوم چې د اسراییلو د ازادۍ له اعلان سره تړلي دي، ځان یو یهودي او دېموکراتیک دولت بولي او اسراییل د یهودو ملي دولت بولي. د اسراییلو د بیا راګرځېدو قانون ټولو هغو یهودي وګړو ته چې غواړي په خپله خوښه د اسراییلو په یهودي دولت کې مېشت شي، د تابعیت حق ورکوي. [لا معتبرې سرچینې ته اړتیا ده][۲۴]

یهودو د انسانانو په پرمختګ کې په زیات شمېر څانګو کې لکه په ساینس او تکنالوژۍ، فلسفې، اخلاقو، ادبیاتو، سیاست، سوداګرۍ، هنر، موسیقۍ، کمېدي ډرامو، تیاتر، سینما، مهندسۍ، خوړو، درملو او مذهب کې، هم په تاریخي لحاظ او هم په معاصرو وختونو کې د پام وړ اغېز درلودلی او ونډه یې پکې اخیستې ده. یهودیانو انجیل لیکلی دی، د لومړني عیسویت بنسټ اېښودونکي وو او په اسلام باندې یې هم غیر مستقیم اما ژور تاثیر درلود. له دې لارو، یهودو همدارنګه د لوېدیځ کلتور په پرمختګ کې هم یوه د پام وړ ونډه لرلې ده.[۲۵][۲۶][۲۷][۲۸][۲۹][۳۰][۳۱][۳۲][۳۳][۳۴][۳۵][۳۶]

نوم او رېښه

سمول

د یهود انګلیسي معادل جیو ("Jew") کلیمه په منځنۍ انګلیسي کې د ګیو (Gyw)، لیو (Iewe) په توګه دوام لري. دغه کلیمې د لرغونې فرانسوۍ کلیمې ګیو (giu) څخه مستعارې شوې دي، او نوموړې فرانسوي کلیمه پخپله له پخوانۍ جویوو (juieu) څخه او هغه بیا په خپل وار سره له جودیو (judieu/iudieu ) څخه رامنځته شوې ده کومې چې د منځنیو پېړیو له لاتیني کلیمې لودایوس (Iudaeus) څخه د اوازونو د حذف له لارې د ("d") توری ایسته کړی دی، لکه د انجیل د نوي عهد په یوناني نسخه کې د لودایوس (Ioudaios) کلیمه چې دواړه یهود ("Jew") او د یهودیې سیمې اړوند ("of Judea") یهودي ("Judean") معنا لري. پورتنۍ یوناني کلیمه له ارمني کلیمې یهودای (*yahūdāy) څخه مستعاره شوې ده چې له عبراني יְהוּדִי یِهودي کلیمې سره چې رېښه یې د یهودا تر ټولواکۍ لاندې وګړو ته ورګرځي. د عبراني انجیل په روایت، د یهودا د قبیلې نوم او همدارنګه د یهودا د ټولواکۍ نوم، دواړه د یعقوب علیه السلام د څلورم زوی یهودا څخه اخیستل شوي دي. د لرغوني انجیل یا د پیدایښت کتاب ۳۵:۲۹ او ۸:۴۹ برخو د یهودا نوم ته له یدا(yada) نوم سره چې معنا یې "ستاینه" ده، تړاو ورکړی دی. خو پوهان په عمومي ډول په دې موافق دي چې پر ځای یې د د کورنۍ د مشر او د ټولواکۍ دواړه نومونه یوه جغرافيایي رېښه لري ـــ چې ښایي د سیمې وادي ګانو او تنګیو ته به اشاره وي. [۳۷][۳۸][۳۹]

د یهودي لپاره عبراني کلیمه יְהוּדִי یعنې یِهودي ده، چې جمع حالت یې ְהוּדִים یعنې یِهودیم کېږی. په نورو یهودي ژبو کې یې نور مستعار نومونه په لادینو ژبه کې ג׳ודיו  یعنې دجودیو (Djudio چې جمع حالت یې ג׳ודיוס یعنې  Djudios دی) او په یدیش ژبه کې ייִד یعنې یِد (چې جمع حالت یې ייִדן یعنې یِدن دی).[۴۰]

په نورو ژبو کې کارېدونکی رېښه یي معادل یې د بېلګې په توګه، په عربي کې يَهُودِيّ، چې جمع حالت یې اَلْیَهُوْد کېږي، په جرمني ژبه کې جود ("Jude") په پرتګالي ژبه کې جوديو ("judeu")، په فرانسوي کې د نارینه لپاره جویف ("Juif")/ د ښځینه لپاره جویو ("Juive")، په ډنمارکي او ناروېژي ژبو کې جُد ("jøde")، په هسپانوي کې جودیو/جودیا ("judío/a")، په هالنډي ژبه جود ("jood")، په پولنډي ژبه زید ("żyd") او همداسې نور دي، په داسې حال کې چې د عبراني کلیمې څخه مشتق شوي معادل نومونه یې هم د یو یهودي د شرح کولو لپاره کارول کېږي، د بېلګې په توګه، په اېټالوي کې عبریو ((Ebreo،  په فارسي کې عِبْري/عِبْراني او په روسي ژبه کې  Еврей) چې تلفظ یې عِوْري دی). جرمني کلیمه جود ("Jude") د [ˈjuːdə] په بڼه تلفظ کېږي، اړوند صفت یې جودیش ("jüdisch" [ˈjyːdɪʃ] یعنې یهودي) د یِدیش ("Yiddish") کلیمې رېښه ده.[۴۱][۴۲]

د امریکایي میراث د انګلیسي ژبې ډېکشینرۍ د څلورم چاپ (۲۰۰۰ز کال) له مخې، دا په پراخه توګه په ډاګه شوې ده چې د یهود (Jew) نوم په صفتونو کې لکه  یهود وکیل یا  یهود اخلاق، دواړه مبتذل او په لوړه کچه سپکاوی دی. د خبرو په دا ډول سیاق کې یهودي (Jewish) یواځینی منل کېدونکې شونتیا ده. ځینې خلک، بیا د دې جوړښت په اړه ډېر محتاط شوي دي او ان تر دې چې دغه ننګینه لفظ یې د یو نوم په توګه د یهود کارولو ته هم ورغځولی دی، چې دا کړنلاره خپله له ځان سره خطر لېږدوي. په داسې جملو کې لکه اوس په شورا کې څو یهودان موجود دي، کومه چې له سپکاوي سره تړاو نه لري، خو د یو غیر مستقیم بیان په توګه یې پر ځای د یهودي خلکو یا د یهودي مخینې لرونکو وګړو تعویضول ښایي پخپله د سپکاوي لامل شي، دا ځکه چې ظاهراً د یهود کلمه د نوم په توګه کارول یو منفي مفهوم لري.[۴۳]

هویت

سمول

یهودیت د یو ملت، یو توکم، یو دین او یو کلتور ځینې ګډې ځانګړتیاوې لري، کوم چې هغه تعریف ته چې یو یهودي څوک دی، له یو مذهبي، یا ملي تقرب په کارولو سره بېلابېلې بڼې ورکوي. په عمومي توګه، په معاصر سیکولري استعمال سره یهودیان درې ډلې شاملوي: لومړی هغه خلک چې په یوه یهودي کورنۍ کې زیږېدلي دي، پرته له دې چې آیا له دین څخه پیروي کوي یا نه؛ دویم هغه خلک چې یو څه اجدادي یهودي مخینه یا شجره لري (زیاتره وخت د هغو خلکو په شمول چې  اصلي مورنۍ شجره نه لري)، او دریم هغه خلک چې د یهودي شجرې یا نسل هېڅ مخینه نه لري او له مخکې نه یهودیت ته اوښتي دي او په همدې دلیل د یاد دین پیروان دي.[۴۴][۴۵][۴۶][۴۷][۴۸][۴۹][۵۰][۵۱][۵۲][۵۳][۵۴]

سرچينې

سمول
  1. M. Nicholson (2002). International Relations: A Concise Introduction. NYU Press. مخونه 19–. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-8147-5822-9. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود) "The Jews are a nation and were so before there was a Jewish state of Israel"
  2. Alan Dowty (1998). The Jewish State: A Century Later, Updated With a New Preface. University of California Press. مخونه 3–. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-520-92706-3. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود) "Jews are a people, a nation (in the original sense of the word), an ethnos"
  3. Raymond P. Scheindlin (1998). A Short History of the Jewish People: From Legendary Times to Modern Statehood. Oxford University Press. مخونه 1–. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-19-513941-9. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود) Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites"
  4. Facts On File, Incorporated (2009). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East. Infobase Publishing. مخونه 337–. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-1-4381-2676-0. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود)"The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history"
  5. Harry Ostrer MD (2012). Legacy: A Genetic History of the Jewish People. Oxford University Press. مخونه 26–. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-19-997638-6. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود)
  6. Lua error in Module:Lang at line 48: attempt to index field 'lang_name' (a nil value).
  7. Lua error in Module:Lang at line 48: attempt to index field 'lang_name' (a nil value).
  8. Eli Lederhendler (2001). Studies in Contemporary Jewry: Volume XVII: Who Owns Judaism? Public Religion and Private Faith in America and Israel. Oxford University Press. مخونه 101–. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-19-534896-5. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود) "Historically, the religious and ethnic dimensions of Jewish identity have been closely interwoven. In fact, so closely bound are they, that the traditional Jewish lexicon hardly distinguishes between the two concepts. Jewish religious practice, by definition, was observed exclusively by the Jewish people, and notions of Jewish peoplehood, nation, and community were suffused with faith in the Jewish God, the practice of Jewish (religious) law and the study of ancient religious texts"
  9. Tet-Lim N. Yee (2005). Jews, Gentiles and Ethnic Reconciliation: Paul's Jewish identity and Ephesians. Cambridge University Press. مخونه 102–. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-1-139-44411-8. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود) "This identification in the Jewish attitude between the ethnic group and religious identity is so close that the reception into this religion of members not belonging to its ethnic group has become impossible."
  10. Ernest Krausz; Gitta Tulea (1997). Jewish Survival: The Identity Problem at the Close of the Twentieth Century; [... International Workshop at Bar-Ilan University on the 18th and 19th of March, 1997]. Transaction Publishers. مخونه 90–. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-1-4128-2689-1. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود) "A person born Jewish who refutes Judaism may continue to assert a Jewish identity, and if he or she does not convert to another religion, even religious Jews will recognize the person as a Jew"
  11. "A Portrait of Jewish Americans". Pew Research Center. 1 October 2013. But the survey also suggests that Jewish identity is changing in America, where one-in-five Jews (22%) now describe themselves as having no religion. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود)
  12. "Facts About Israel: History". GxMSDev. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود)
  13. Lua error in Module:Lang at line 48: attempt to index field 'lang_name' (a nil value).
  14. Lua error in Module:Lang at line 48: attempt to index field 'lang_name' (a nil value).
  15. John Day (2005), In Search of Pre-Exilic Israel, Bloomsbury Publishing, pp. 47.5 [48] 'In this sense, the emergence of ancient Israel is viewed not as the cause of the demise of Canaanite culture but as its upshot'.
  16. Day, pp. 31–33, p. 57, n. 33.
  17. Lua error in Module:Lang at line 48: attempt to index field 'lang_name' (a nil value).
  18. * Marvin Perry (2012). Western Civilization: A Brief History, Volume I: To 1789. Cengage Learning. مخونه 87. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-1-111-83720-4. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود)
    • Botticini, Maristella; Eckstein, Zvi (1 September 2007). "From Farmers to Merchants, Conversions and Diaspora: Human Capital and Jewish History". Journal of the European Economic Association. 5 (5): 885–926. doi:10.1162/JEEA.2007.5.5.885. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود) "The death toll of the Great Revolt against the Roman empire amounted to about 600,000 Jews, whereas the Bar Kokhba revolt in 135 caused the death of about 500,000 Jews. Massacres account for roughly 40 percent of the decrease of the Jewish population in Palestine. Moreover, some Jews migrated to Babylon after these revolts because of the worse economic conditions. After accounting for massacres and migrations, there is an additional 30 to 40 percent of the decrease in the Jewish population in Palestine (about 1–1.3 million Jews) to be explained" (p. 19).
    • Boyarin, Daniel, and Jonathan Boyarin. 2003. Diaspora: Generation and the Ground of Jewish Diaspora. p. 714 Archived 2020-10-11 at the Wayback Machine. "...it is crucial to recognize that the Jewish conception of the Land of Israel is similar to the discourse of the Land of many (if not nearly all) "indigenous" peoples of the world. Somehow the Jews have managed to retain a sense of being rooted somewhere in the world through twenty centuries of exile from that someplace (organic metaphors are not out of place in this discourse, for they are used within the tradition itself). It is profoundly disturbing to hear Jewish attachment to the Land decried as regressive in the same discursive situations in which the attachment of native Americans or Australians to their particular rocks, trees, and deserts is celebrated as an organic connection to the Earth that "we" have lost" p. 714.
    • Cohen, Robin (1997), Global Diasporas: An Introduction. p. 24 London: UCL Press. "...although the word Babylon often connotes captivity and oppression, a rereading of the Babylonian period of exile can thus be shown to demonstrate the development of a new creative energy in a challenging, pluralistic context outside the natal homeland. When the Romans destroyed the Second Temple in AD 70, it was Babylon that remained as the nerve- and brain-centre for Jewish life and thought...the crushing of the revolt of the Judaeans against the Romans and the destruction of the Second Temple by the Roman general Titus in AD 70 precisely confirmed the catastrophic tradition. Once again, Jews had been unable to sustain a national homeland and were scattered to the far corners of the world" (p. 24).
    • Johnson, Paul A History of the Jews "The Bar Kochba Revolt," (HarperPerennial, 1987) pp. 158–61: Paul Johnson analyzes Cassius Dio's Roman History: Epitome of Book LXIX para. 13–14 (Dio's passage cited separately) among other sources: "Even if Dio's figures are somewhat exaggerated, the casualties amongst the population and the destruction inflicted on the country would have been considerable. According to Jerome, many Jews were also sold into slavery, so many, indeed, that the price of Jewish slaves at the slave market in Hebron sank drastically to a level no greater than that for a horse. The economic structure of the country was largely destroyed. The entire spiritual and economic life of the Palestinian Jews moved to Galilee. Jerusalem was now turned into a Roman colony with the official name Colonia Aelia Capitolina (Aelia after Hadrian's family name: P. Aelius Hadrianus; Capitolina after Jupiter Capitolinus). The Jews were forbidden on pain of death to set foot in the new Roman city. Aelia thus became a completely pagan city, no doubt with the corresponding public buildings and temples... We can...be certain that a statue of Hadrian was erected in the centre of Aelia, and this was tantamount in itself to a desecration of Jewish Jerusalem." p. 159.
    • Cassius Dio's Roman History: Epitome of Book LXIX para. 13–14: "13 At first the Romans took no account of them. Soon, however, all Judaea had been stirred up, and the Jews everywhere were showing signs of disturbance, were gathering together, and giving evidence of great hostility to the Romans, partly by secret and partly by overt acts; 2 many outside nations, too, were joining them through eagerness for gain, and the whole earth, one might almost say, was being stirred up over the matter. Then, indeed, Hadrian sent against them his best generals. First of these was Julius Severus, who was dispatched from Britain, where he was governor, against the Jews. 3 Severus did not venture to attack his opponents in the open at any one point, in view of their numbers and their desperation, but by intercepting small groups, thanks to the number of his soldiers and his under-officers, and by depriving them of food and shutting them up, he was able, rather slowly, to be sure, but with comparatively little danger, to crush, exhaust and exterminate them. Very few of them in fact survived. Fifty of their most important outposts and nine hundred and eighty-five of their most famous villages were razed to the ground. Five hundred and eighty thousand men were slain in the various raids and battles, and the number of those that perished by famine, disease and fire was past finding out. 2 Thus nearly the whole of Judaea was made desolate, a result of which the people had had forewarning before the war. For the tomb of Solomon, which the Jews regard as an object of veneration, fell to pieces of itself and collapsed, and many wolves and hyenas rushed howling into their cities. 3 Many Romans, moreover, perished in this war. Therefore Hadrian in writing to the senate did not employ the opening phrase commonly affected by the emperors, 'If you and our children are in health, it is well; I and the legions are in health'" (para. 13–14).
    • Safran, William (2005). "The Jewish Diaspora in a Comparative and Theoretical Perspective". Israel Studies. 10 (1): 36–60. doi:10.2979/ISR.2005.10.1.36. JSTOR 30245753. S2CID 144379115. کينډۍ:Project MUSE. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود) "...diaspora referred to a very specific case—that of the exile of the Jews from the Holy Land and their dispersal throughout several parts of the globe. Diaspora [galut] connoted deracination, legal disabilities, oppression, and an often painful adjustment to a hostland whose hospitality was unreliable and ephemeral. It also connoted the existence on foreign soil of an expatriate community that considered its presence to be transitory. Meanwhile, it developed a set of institutions, social patterns, and ethnonational and/or religious symbols that held it together. These included the language, religion, values, social norms, and narratives of the homeland. Gradually, this community adjusted to the hostland environment and became itself a center of cultural creation. All the while, however, it continued to cultivate the idea of return to the homeland." (p. 36).
    • Sheffer, Gabriel (2005). "Is the Jewish Diaspora Unique? Reflections on the Diaspora's Current Situation". Israel Studies. 10 (1): 1–35. doi:10.2979/ISR.2005.10.1.1. JSTOR 30245752. S2CID 143958201. کينډۍ:Project MUSE. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود) "...the Jewish nation, which from its very earliest days believed and claimed that it was the "chosen people," and hence unique. This attitude has further been buttressed by the equally traditional view, which is held not only by the Jews themselves, about the exceptional historical age of this diaspora, its singular traumatic experiences its singular ability to survive pogroms, exiles, and Holocaust, as well as its "special relations" with its ancient homeland, culminating in 1948 with the nation-state that the Jewish nation has established there... First, like many other members of established diasporas, the vast majority of Jews no longer regard themselves as being in Galut [exile] in their host countries.…Perceptually, as well as actually, Jews permanently reside in host countries of their own free will, as a result of inertia, or as a result of problematic conditions prevailing in other hostlands, or in Israel. It means that the basic perception of many Jews about their existential situation in their hostlands has changed. Consequently, there is both a much greater self- and collective-legitimatization to refrain from making serious plans concerning "return" or actually "making Aliyah" [to emigrate, or "go up"] to Israel. This is one of the results of their wider, yet still rather problematic and sometimes painful acceptance by the societies and political systems in their host countries. It means that they, and to an extent their hosts, do not regard Jewish life within the framework of diasporic formations in these hostlands as something that they should be ashamed of, hide from others, or alter by returning to the old homeland" (p. 4).
    • Davies, William David; Finkelstein, Louis; Katz, Steven T. (1984). The Cambridge History of Judaism: Volume 4, The Late Roman-Rabbinic Period. Cambridge University Press. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-521-77248-8. Although Dio's figure of 985 as the number of villages destroyed during the war seems hyperbolic, all Judaean villages, without exception, excavated thus far were razed following the Bar Kochba Revolt. This evidence supports the impression of total regional destruction following the war. Historical sources note the vast number of captives sold into slavery in Palestine and shipped abroad. ... The Judaean Jewish community never recovered from the Bar Kochba war. In its wake, Jews no longer formed the majority in Palestine, and the Jewish center moved to the Galilee. Jews were also subjected to a series of religious edicts promulgated by Hadrian that were designed to uproot the nationalistic elements with the Judaean Jewish community, these proclamations remained in effect until Hadrian's death in 138. An additional, more lasting punitive measure taken by the Romans involved expunging Judaea from the provincial name, changing it from Provincia Judaea to Provincia Syria Palestina. Although such name changes occurred elsewhere, never before or after was a nation's name expunged as the result of rebellion. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود)
    • Dalit Rom-Shiloni, Exclusive Inclusivity: Identity Conflicts Between the Exiles and the People who Remained (6th–5th Centuries BCE), A&C Black, 2013 p. xv n.3: 'it is argued that biblical texts of the Neo-Babylonian and the early Persian periods show a fierce adversarial relationship(s) between the Judean groups. We find no expressions of sympathy to the deported community for its dislocation, no empathic expressions towards the People Who Remained under Babylonian subjugation in Judah. The opposite is apparent: hostile, denigrating, and denunciating language characterizes the relationships between resident and exiled Judeans throughout the sixth and fifth centuries.' (p. xvii)
  19. Lua error in Module:Lang at line 48: attempt to index field 'lang_name' (a nil value).
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  22. "The Holocaust". HISTORY.com. لاسرسي‌نېټه ۱۰ نومبر ۲۰۱۵. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود)
  23. (په October 2012 باندې). Jews make up only 0.2% of mankind.
  24. A 1970 amendment to Israel's Law of Return defines "Jew" as "a person who was born of a Jewish mother or has become converted to Judaism and who is not a member of another religion." "Law of Return". منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود)
  25. Jonathan Daly (2013). The Rise of Western Power: A Comparative History of Western Civilization. A&C Black. مخونه 21–. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-1-4411-1851-6. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود)"Upon the foundation of Judaism, two civilizations centered on monotheistic religion emerged, Christianity and Islam. To these civilizations, the Jews added a leaven of astonishing creativity in business, medicine, letters, science, the arts, and a variety of other leadership roles."
  26. "Maimonides – Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy". utm.edu. لاسرسي‌نېټه ۲۶ اگسټ ۲۰۱۵. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود)
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  29. (په 2012-05-14 باندې). Tracing the Path of Jewish Medical Pioneers.
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  31. Max I. Dimont (2004). Jews, God, and History. Penguin Publishing Group. مخونه 102–. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-1-101-14225-7. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود) "During the subsequent five hundred years, under Persian, Greek and Roman domination, the Jews wrote, revised, admitted and canonized all the books now comprising the Jewish Old Testament"
  32. Julie Galambush (2011). The Reluctant Parting: How the New Testament's Jewish Writers Created a Christian Book. HarperCollins. مخونه 3–. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-06-210475-5. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود)"The fact that Jesus and his followers who wrote the New Testament were first-century Jews, then, produces as many questions as it does answers concerning their experiences, beliefs, and practices"
  33. John M. G. Barclay; John Philip McMurdo Sweet (1996). Early Christian Thought in Its Jewish Context. Cambridge University Press. مخونه 20–. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-521-46285-3. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود)"Early Christianity began as a Jewish movement in first-century Palestine"
  34. Dr. Andrea C. Paterson (2009). Three Monotheistic Faiths – Judaism, Christianity, Islam: An Analysis and Brief History. AuthorHouse. مخونه 41–. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-1-4520-3049-4. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود) "Judaism also contributed to the religion of Islam for Islam derives its ideas of holy text, the Qur'an, ultimately from Judaism. The dietary and legal codes of Islam are based on those of Judaism. The basic design of the mosque, the Islamic house of worship, comes from that of the early synagogues. The communal prayer services of Islam and their devotional routines resembles those of Judaism."
  35. Cambridge University Historical Series, An Essay on Western Civilization in Its Economic Aspects, p. 40: "Hebraism, like Hellenism, has been an all-important factor in the development of Western Civilization; Judaism, as the precursor of Christianity, has indirectly had much to do with shaping the ideals and morality of Western nations since the Christian era."
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  44. M. Nicholson (2002). International Relations: A Concise Introduction. NYU Press. مخونه 19–. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-8147-5822-9. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود) "The Jews are a nation and were so before there was a Jewish state of Israel"
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