Mature P. vivax trophozoite
Grassi & Feletti 1890
د پلازموډيم وايوېکس پرازيت په وار وار د بېنن يا د سلولي بې ډولۍ تر ټولو لوی لامل دی، خو ددغه پرازيت تر ټولو لويه ستونزه دا ده چې دا په هرو درو ورځو کې د ملاريا ناروغي رامنځ ته کوي. دا يو د هغو څلورو پرازيتونو نه دی چې په ټولگړې توگه په انسانانو کې د ملاريا د انتاني ناروغۍ سبب گرځي. دا پرازيت لږې ستونزې رامنځ ته کوي، خو د ملاريا د پرازيتونو تر ټولو خطرناکه او مرگونی پرازيت پلازموډيم فالسيپارم دی. پلازموډيم وايوېکس د يوې ښځينه انافېلېس غوماشې د چيچلو سره د انسانانو بدن ته لاره پېدا کوي، او د انافليس د غوماشې همدا ښځينه جنس انسانان چيچي.
د ژباړې لپاره نومېدلي، نور مخونو دلته وگورۍ.
- Immature trophozoites (Ring or signet-ring shaped), about 1/3 of the diameter of a RBC.
- Mature trophozoites: Very irregular and delicate (described as amoeboid); many pseudopodial processes seen. Presence of fine grains of brown pigment (malarial pigment) or hematin probably derived from the haemoglobin of the infected red blood cell.
- Schizonts (also called meronts): As large as a normal red cell; thus the parasitized corpuslce becomes distended and larger than normal. there are about sixteen merozoites.
Sexual forms: Gametocytes: Round. The gametocytes of P. vivax are commonly found in the peripheral blood at about the end of the first week of parasitemia.
Microscopically, the parasitised red blood cell is up to twice as large as a normal cell and fine pink Schüffner's stippling are seen on the cell's surface. The parasite within it is often wildly irregular in shape (described as "amoeboid"). Schizonts of P. vivax have up to twenty merozoites within them. It is rare to see cells with more than one parasite within them. Merozoites will only attach to immature blood cell (reticulocytes) and therefore it is unusual to see more than 3% of all circulating erythrocytes parasitised.
P. vivax and P. ovale that has been sitting in EDTA for more than half-an-hour before the blood film is made will look very similar in appearance to P. malariae, which is an important reason to warn the laboratory immediately when the blood sample is drawn so they can process the sample as soon as it arrives. Blood films are preferably must be made within half-an-hour of the blood being drawn and must certainly be made within an hour of the blood being drawn.
The incubation period for the infection usually ranges from ten to seventeen days and sometimes up to a year. Persistent liver stages allow relapse up to five years after elimination of red blood cell stages and clinical cure.
Chloroquine remains the treatment of choice for vivax malaria, except in Indonesia's Irian Jaya (Western New Guinea) region and the geographically contiguous Papua New Guinea, where chloroquine resistance is common (up to 20% resistance). When chloroquine resistance is common or when chloroquine is contraindicated, then artesunate is the drug of choice; mefloquine is a good alternative and in some countries is more readily available. Quinine may be used to treat vivax malaria but is associated with inferior outcomes. Eradication of the liver stages is performed by primaquine administration, after checking the patients G6PD status to reduce the risk of haemolysis.
- Pukrittayakamee S, et al. (2000). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". "Therapeutic responses to different antimalarial drugs in vivax malaria"]. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44 (6): 1680–5.
- Maguire JD, Krisin, Marwoto H, Richie TL, Fryauff DJ, Baird JK (2006). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". "Mefloquine is highly efficacious against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Papua, Indonesia"]. Clin Infect Dis 42 (8): 1067–72.