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اردو ژبه
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ټول وییونکی ۶۶ میلیونه
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اردو ژبه د هند و آریایي ژبو له ډلې نه ده چې په پراخه کچه په جنوبي اسیا کې پرې تکلم  کېږي. دا ژبه د پاکستان ملي ژبه او منځګړې ژبه ده. په هند کې، اردو د قانون تر ملاتړ لاندې اتمه ژبه ده، چې حیثیت، فعالیت او کلتوري میراث یې د هند د اساسي قانون له لوري په رسمیت پېژندل شوی او هم د هند په څو ایالتونو کې رسمي ژبه ده. په نیپال کې، اردو یوه رسمي سیمه يیزه لهجه ګڼل کېږي.  [۱][۲][۳][۴][۵][۶][۷]

اردو د هندوستاني ژبې پارسي شوې معیاري او راجستر (تنوع لرونکې) ژبې په توګه تعریف شوې ده. اردو او هندي چې د هندوآریایي ژبو له ډلې دي، د سانسکرت او پراکریت څخه اخیستل شوې، د لغتونو ګډه ټولګه، ورته آوازپوهنه (فونولوژي)، نحوه او ګرامر لري، چې دواړه ژبې د عامیانه تکلم پرمهال یو له بل سره د پوهېدو وړ دي. لکه څنګه چې رسمي اردو ادبي، سیاسي او تخنیکي لغتونه له پارسي څخه اخلي، رسمي هندي، دا اړخونه له سنسکرت څخه اخلی، چې په پایله کې، د رسمیت د لاملونو د زیاتېدو له امله د دواړو ژبو پوهاوی له یوې او بلې سره په پراخه کچه کمېږي. [۸][۹][۱۰][۱۱][۱۲]

په ۱۸۳۸ ز کال کې د ختیځ هند د بریتانوي کمپنۍ د واکمنۍ پرمهال، اردو د دې کمپنۍ له لوري په شمالي هند کې د پارسي ځایناستې وټاکل شوه. پارسي تر دې مهاله د هندي- اسلامي سترواکیو د درباري ژبې په توګه کارول کېده. د اروپا د استعمار په دوره کې دیني، ټولنیز او سیاسي لاملونه را منځته شول چې د اردو او هندي تر منځ د توپیر ملاتړ یې کاوه او د هندي-اردو ژبو تر منځ د بحث د راپورته کېدو لامل شوه.  [۱۳][۱۴]

په اتلسمه پېړۍ کې اردو یوه ادبي ژبه شوه او دوه ورته معیاري بڼې یې په ډیلي او لکنهو کې رامنځته شوې. په ۱۹۴۷ ز کال کې د هند له تجزیې څخه وروسته، درېیمه بڼه یې د پاکستان په کراچۍ ښار کې را څرګنده شوه. دکني، چې په سویلي هند کې یوه کارېدونکې پخوانۍ بڼه وه، په ۱۶مه پېړۍ کې د دکني سلطنتونو د دربار ژبه شوه.[۱۵][۱۶][۱۷][۱۸]

له ۲۰۲۱ ز کال را په دې خوا، په نړۍ کې اردو یووېشتمه لویه تکلمي ژبه ده چې نږدې ۱۶.۹ میلیونه مورني تکلم کوونکي لري. د ایتنولوګ د ۲۰۱۸ ز کال د اټکلونو پر بنسټ: اردو په نړۍ کې لسمه پراخه تکلمي ژبه ده، چې د دویمي ژبې په توګه د تکلم کوونکو په ګډون یې ټول تکلم کوونکي ۲۳۰ میلیونه وګړي دي.  [۱۹][۲۰][۲۱]

تاریخچه

د هندي په څېر، اردو هم د هندوستاني ژبې یوه بڼه ده. ځیني ژبپوهان وړاندیز کوي چې د اردو لومړنۍ بڼې د منځنیو پېړیو (له شپږمې پېړۍ څخه تر دیارلسمې پېړۍ پورې) د مخکینۍ شاراسیني ژبې د اپبرمشا له بڼې  څخه تکامل وکړ. شاراسیني د هند و آریایي له منځنیو ژبو نه ده چې د نورو عصري هند آریایي ژبو مور هم ده.  [۲۲][۲۳][۲۴][۲۵][۲۶]

سرچینې

کارويبولي د هند د ډیلي په سیمه کې بومي ژبه وه، چې د هغې لومړنۍ بڼه د زړې هندي (یا هنداوی) په نوم یادېږي. دا ژبه د هند و آریایي د مرکزي ژبو د لویدیځ هندي له ډلې ده. د اسلامي فتوحاتو په اوږدو کې او د هند په نیمه وچه کې د هندوانو او مسلمانو د دودونو تر منځ اړیکو (له ۱۲ پېړۍ څخه تر ۱۶ مې پېړۍ پورې) د دې لامل شوه، چې د ګنگا-جمونو تهذیب د ګډ حاصل په بڼه د هندوستاني ژبې د رامنځته کېدو لامل شول.  [۲۷][۲۸][۲۹][۳۰][۳۱][۳۲][۳۳][۳۴][۳۵][۳۶][۳۷][۳۸][۳۹][۴۰]

د هندي ژبې زړې هندي د ډیلي په څېر ښارونو کې، له پارسي څخه د لغاتو پور پیل کړ او د "هندي" او وروسته بیا "هندوستاني" په نوم یاده شوه. په سویلي هند کې (په ځانګړې توګه په ګولکونډا او بیجاپور کې)، د منځنیو پېړیو په هند کې د دکني ژبې په نوم د ژبې یوې بڼې وده وکړه، چې له تلوګو او مراهټي څخه یې پور کلیمات درلودل. د هنداوی یو لومړنی ادبي دود، د دیارلسمې پېړۍ په وروستیو کې د امیر خسرو له لوري را منځته شو. [۴۱][۴۲][۴۳][۴۴][۴۵][۴۶][۴۷][۴۸][۴۹][۵۰][۵۱][۵۲] 

هغه ژبه  چې اوس د اردو په نوم یادېږي، له دیارلسمې پېړۍ څخه د اتلسمې پېړۍ تر پایه پورې د هندي، هنداوی، هندوستاني، دهلوي، لاهوري او لشکري په نامه یادېده. د اتلسمې پېړۍ په لومړیو کې د اورنګزېب د واکمنۍ په پای کې، یوه عامه ژبه د ډیلي په شاوخوا کې په خپرېدو شوه چې د (زبان اردو) په نامه یادېده اونوم یې د ترکي کلیمې اوردو (پوځ) یا اوردا څخه اخیستل شوی و، ویل کېږي چې د "کمپ ژبې"، یا "زباناردو" یا په بومي توګه "لشکري زبان" په توګه رامنځته شوه. په هند کې د ترک-افغان ډیلي سلطنت، پارسي د خپلې رسمي ژبې په توګه وټاکله چې دې سیاست، د مغولي سترواکۍ له لوري دوام و موند، چې له ۱۶ مې پېړۍ څخه تر ۱۸ مې پېړۍ پورې د سویلي آسیا په ډېرو شمالي برخو کې خپره شوه او په هندوستاني ژبه یې د پارسي نفوذ را منځته کړ.[۵۳][۵۴][۵۵][۵۶][۵۷][۵۸][۵۹][۶۰][۶۱]

په لومړي ځل د اردو ژبې نوم، د ۱۷۸۰ ز کال په شاوخوا کې د شاعر غلام همداني مصحفي له خوا وړاندې شو. د ادبي ژبې په توګه، اردو درباري او اشرافي بڼه خپله کړه. په داسې حال کې چې اردو د هندو-آريايي د ځايي هندي ژبي کارېدلی ګرامر او اساسي لغتونه وساتل، د نستعليق د لیک سيسټم يې خپل کړ، چې د پارسي خطاطۍ په توګه را منځ ته شوی و.  [۶۲][۶۳][۶۴][۶۵][۶۶][۶۷]

نور تاریخي نومونه

د دې ژبې د تاریخ په اوږدو کې، اردو ته څو نورو نومونه، لکه: هندي، هنداوی، ریخته، اردو مولا، دکني، لاهوري، ګوجري، مورس او دهلوي هم کارول شوي دي.

د صوفی لیکوالانو لکه اشرف جهانګیر سمناني څو آثارو د اردو ژبې لپاره ورته نومونه کارولي. شاه عبدالقادر رایي پوري، لومړی کس و چې قرآنکریم یې اردو ته وژباړه.[۶۸]

د شاه جهان په وخت کې پلازمېنه ډهلي ته ولېږدول شوه او د شاه جهان آباد په نوم ونومول شوه او د ښار بازار د اردو مولا په نوم ونومول شو.[۶۹][۷۰]

د لومړي ځل لپاره اردو ته د ریخته کلیمه د اکبر پاچا په دوره کې وکارول شوه. دا په اصل کې پارسي کلیمه وه چې د " مخلوط جوړولو" په معنا وه. خسرو لومړنی کس و چې د شعر لپاره یې ورته کلیمه وکاروله.  

سرچينې

  1. "Urdu"Archived 19 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  2. Urdu language, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 5 December 2019, د لاسرسي‌نېټه ۱۷ اکتوبر ۲۰۲۰, member of the Indo-Aryan group within the Indo-European family of languages. Urdu is spoken as a first language by nearly 70 million people and as a second language by more than 100 million people, predominantly in Pakistan and India. It is the official state language of Pakistan and is also officially recognized, or “scheduled,” in the constitution of India. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  3. Urdu (n), Oxford English Dictionary, June 2020, د لاسرسي‌نېټه ۱۱ سپټمبر ۲۰۲۰, An Indo-Aryan language of northern South Asia (now esp. Pakistan), closely related to Hindi but written in a modified form of the Arabic script and having many loanwords from Persian and Arabic. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  4. Muzaffar, Sharmin; Behera, Pitambar (2014). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". "Error analysis of the Urdu verb markers: a comparative study on Google and Bing machine translation platforms"]. Aligarh Journal of Linguistics 4 (1–2): 1. "Modern Standard Urdu, a register of the Hindustani language, is the national language, lingua-franca and is one of the two official languages along with English in Pakistan and is spoken in all over the world. It is also one of the 22 scheduled languages and officially recognized languages in the Constitution of India and has been conferred the status of the official language in many Indian states of Bihar, Telangana, Jammu, and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, and New Delhi. Urdu is one of the members of the new or modern Indo-Aryan language group within the Indo-European family of languages.". 
  5. Gazzola, Michele; Wickström, Bengt-Arne (2016). The Economics of Language Policy. MIT Press. د کتاب پاڼي 469–. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-262-03470-8. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة) Quote: "The Eighth Schedule recognizes India’s national languages as including the major regional languages as well as others, such as Sanskrit and Urdu, which contribute to India’s cultural heritage. ... The original list of fourteen languages in the Eighth Schedule at the time of the adoption of the Constitution in 1949 has now grown to twenty-two."
  6. Groff, Cynthia (2017). The Ecology of Language in Multilingual India: Voices of Women and Educators in the Himalayan Foothills. Palgrave Macmillan UK. د کتاب پاڼي 58–. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-1-137-51961-0. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة) Quote: "As Mahapatra says: “It is generally believed that the significance for the Eighth Schedule lies in providing a list of languages from which Hindi is directed to draw the appropriate forms, style and expressions for its enrichment” ... Being recognized in the Constitution, however, has had significant relevance for a language's status and functions.
  7. "National Languages Policy Recommendation Commission" (PDF). MOE Nepal. 1994. د کتاب پاڼې Appendix one. د لاسرسي‌نېټه ۱۴ مارچ ۲۰۲۱. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  8. Gibson, Mary (13 May 2011). Indian Angles: English Verse in Colonial India from Jones to Tagore. Ohio University Press. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0821443583. Bayly's description of Hindustani (roughly Hindi/Urdu) is helpful here; he uses the term Urdu to represent "the more refined and Persianised form of the common north Indian language Hindustani" (Empire and Information, 193); Bayly more or less follows the late eighteenth-century scholar Sirajuddin Ali Arzu, who proposed a typology of language that ran from "pure Sanskrit, through popular and regional variations of Hindustani to Urdu, which incorporated many loan words from Persian and Arabic. His emphasis on the unity of languages reflected the view of the Sanskrit grammarians and also affirmed the linguistic unity of the north Indian ecumene. What emerged was a kind of register of language types that were appropriate to different conditions. ...But the abiding impression is of linguistic plurality running through the whole society and an easier adaptation to circumstances in both spoken and written speech" (193). The more Persianized the language, the more likely it was to be written in Arabic script; the more Sanskritized the language; the more likely it was to be written in Devanagari. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  9. Basu, Manisha (2017). The Rhetoric of Hindutva. Cambridge University Press. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 9781107149878. Urdu, like Hindi, was a standardized register of the Hindustani language deriving from the Dehlavi dialect and emerged in the eighteenth century under the rule of the late Mughals. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  10. Gube, Jan; Gao, Fang (2019). Education, Ethnicity and Equity in the Multilingual Asian Context (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). Springer Publishing. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-981-13-3125-1. The national language of India and Pakistan 'Standard Urdu' is mutually intelligible with 'Standard Hindi' because both languages share the same Indic base and are all but indistinguishable in phonology. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  11. Clyne, Michael (24 May 2012). Pluricentric Languages: Differing Norms in Different Nations (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). Walter de Gruyter. د کتاب پاڼې 385. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-3-11-088814-0. With the consolidation of the different linguistic bases of Khari Boli there were three distinct varieties of Hindi-Urdu: the High Hindi with predominant Sanskrit vocabulary, the High-Urdu with predominant Perso-Arabic vocabulary and casual or colloquial Hindustani which was commonly spoken among both the Hindus and Muslims in the provinces of north India. The last phase of the emergence of Hindi and Urdu as pluricentric national varieties extends from the late 1920s till the partition of India in 1947. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  12. Kiss, Tibor; Alexiadou, Artemis (10 March 2015). Syntax - Theory and Analysis (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. د کتاب پاڼې 1479. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-3-11-036368-5. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  13. Metcalf, Barbara D. (2014). Islamic Revival in British India: Deoband, 1860-1900. Princeton University Press. د کتاب پاڼي 207–. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-1-4008-5610-7. The basis of that shift was the decision made by the government in 1837 to replace Persian as court language by the various vernaculars of the country. Urdu was identified as the regional vernacular in Bihar, Oudh, the North-Western Provinces, and Punjab, and hence was made the language of government across upper India. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  14. Ahmad, Rizwan (1 July 2008). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". "Scripting a new identity: The battle for Devanagari in nineteenth-century India"]. Journal of Pragmatics 40 (7): 1163–1183. doi:10.1016/j.pragma.2007.06.005. 
  15. Schmidt, Ruth Laila (8 December 2005). Urdu: An Essential Grammar (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). Routledge. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-1-134-71319-6. Historically, Urdu developed from the sub-regional language of the Delhi area, which became a literary language in the eighteenth century. Two quite similar standard forms of the language developed in Delhi, and in Lucknow in modern Uttar Pradesh. Since 1947, a third form, Karachi standard Urdu, has evolved. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  16. Mahapatra, B. P. (1989). Constitutional languages (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). Presses Université Laval. د کتاب پاڼې 553. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-2-7637-7186-1. Modern Urdu is a fairly homogenous language. An older southern form, Deccani Urdu, is now obsolete. Two varieties however, must be mentioned viz. the Urdu of Delhi, and the Urdu of Lucknow. Both are almost identical, differing only in some minor points. Both of these varieties are considered 'Standard Urdu' with some minor divergences. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  17. Dwyer, Rachel (27 September 2006). Filming the Gods: Religion and Indian Cinema (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). Routledge. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-1-134-38070-1. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  18. Mahapatra, B. P. (1989). Constitutional languages (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). Presses Université Laval. د کتاب پاڼې 553. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-2-7637-7186-1. Modern Urdu is a fairly homogenous language. An older southern form, Deccani Urdu, is now obsolete. Two varieties however, must be mentioned viz. the Urdu of Delhi, and the Urdu of Lucknow. Both are almost identical, differing only in some minor points. Both of these varieties are considered 'Standard Urdu' with some minor divergences. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  19. Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin. Asterisks mark the 2010 estimates Archived 11 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine. for the top dozen languages.
  20. "What are the top 200 most spoken languages?". Ethnologue (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). 3 March 2018. د لاسرسي‌نېټه ۰۳ جنوري ۲۰۱۹. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  21. "Urdu 11th most spoken language in world: Study". Deccan Chronicle (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). 20 January 2019. د لاسرسي‌نېټه ۰۳ ډيسمبر ۲۰۱۹. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  22. Dua, Hans R. (1992). Hindi-Urdu is a pluricentric language. In M. G. Clyne (Ed.), Pluricentric languages: Differing norms in different nations. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. کينډۍ:ISBN.
  23. Kachru, Yamuna (2008), Braj Kachru; Yamuna Kachru; S. N. Sridhar (المحررون), Hindi-Urdu-Hindustani, Cambridge University Press, د کتاب پاڼې 82, د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-521-78653-9, د اصلي آرشيف څخه پر ۲۴ جنوري ۲۰۲۰ باندې الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  24. Qalamdaar, Azad (27 December 2010). "Hamari History" (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). Hamari Boli Foundation. د اصلي آرشيف څخه پر ۲۷ ډيسمبر ۲۰۱۰ باندې. Historically, Hindustani developed in the post-12th century period under the impact of the incoming Afghans and Turks as a linguistic modus vivendi from the sub-regional apabhramshas of north-western India. Its first major folk poet was the great Persian master, Amir Khusrau (1253–1325), who is known to have composed dohas (couplets) and riddles in the newly-formed speech, then called 'Hindavi'. Through the medieval time, this mixed speech was variously called by various speech sub-groups as 'Hindavi', 'Zaban-e-Hind', 'Hindi', 'Zaban-e-Dehli', 'Rekhta', 'Gujarii. 'Dakkhani', 'Zaban-e-Urdu-e-Mualla', 'Zaban-e-Urdu', or just 'Urdu'. By the late 11th century, the name 'Hindustani' was in vogue and had become the lingua franca for most of northern India. A sub-dialect called Khari Boli was spoken in and around the Delhi region at the start of the 13th century when the Delhi Sultanate was established. Khari Boli gradually became the prestige dialect of Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu) and became the basis of modern Standard Hindi & Urdu. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  25. Schmidt, Ruth Laila. "1 Brief history and geography of Urdu 1.1 History and sociocultural position." The Indo-Aryan Languages 3 (2007): 286.
  26. Malik, Shahbaz, Shareef Kunjahi, Mir Tanha Yousafi, Sanawar Chadhar, Alam Lohar, Abid Tamimi, Anwar Masood et al. "Census History of Punjabi Speakers in Pakistan."
  27. Mody, Sujata Sudhakar (2008). Literature, Language, and Nation Formation: The Story of a Modern Hindi Journal 1900-1920 (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). University of California, Berkeley. د کتاب پاڼې 7. ...Hindustani, Rekhta, and Urdu as later names of the old Hindi (a.k.a. Hindavi). الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  28. Farooqi, M. (2012). Urdu Literary Culture: Vernacular Modernity in the Writing of Muhammad Hasan Askari (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). Springer. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-1-137-02692-7. Historically speaking, Urdu grew out of interaction between Hindus and Muslims. He noted that Urdu is not the language of Muslims alone, although Muslims may have played a larger role in making it a literary language. Hindu poets and writers could and did bring specifically Hindu cultural elements into Urdu and these were accepted. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  29. King, Christopher Rolland (1999). One Language, Two Scripts: The Hindi Movement in Nineteenth Century North India (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). Oxford University Press. د کتاب پاڼې 67. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-19-565112-6. Educated Muslims, for the most part supporters of Urdu, rejected the Hindu linguistic heritage and emphasized the joint Hindu-Muslim origins of Urdu. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  30. Taylor, Insup; Olson, David R. (1995). Scripts and Literacy: Reading and Learning to Read Alphabets, Syllabaries, and Characters (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). Springer Science & Business Media. د کتاب پاڼې 299. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-7923-2912-1. Urdu emerged as the language of contact between Hindu inhabitants and Muslim invaders to India in the 11th century. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  31. Dhulipala, Venkat (2000). The Politics of Secularism: Medieval Indian Historiography and the Sufis (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). University of Wisconsin–Madison. د کتاب پاڼې 27. Persian became the court language, and many Persian words crept into popular usage. The composite culture of northern India, known as the Ganga Jamuni tehzeeb was a product of the interaction between Hindu society and Islam. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  32. Indian Journal of Social Work, Volume 4 (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). Tata Institute of Social Sciences. 1943. د کتاب پاڼې 264. ... more words of Sanskrit origin but 75% of the vocabulary is common. It is also admitted that while this language is known as Hindustani, ... Muslims call it Urdu and the Hindus call it Hindi. ... Urdu is a national language that evolved through years of Hindu and Muslim cultural contact and, as stated by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, is essentially an Indian language and has no place outside. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  33. "Women of the Indian Sub-Continent: Makings of a Culture - Rekhta Foundation" (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). Google Arts & Culture. د لاسرسي‌نېټه ۲۵ فبروري ۲۰۲۰. The "Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb" is one such instance of the composite culture that marks various regions of the country. Prevalent in the North, particularly in the central plains, it is born of the union between the Hindu and Muslim cultures. Most of the temples were lined along the Ganges and the Khanqah (Sufi school of thought) were situated along the Yamuna river (also called Jamuna). Thus, it came to be known as the Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb, with the word "tehzeeb" meaning culture. More than communal harmony, its most beautiful by-product was "Hindustani" which later gave us the Hindi and Urdu languages. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  34. Zahur-ud-Din (1985). Development of Urdu Language and Literature in the Jammu Region (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). Gulshan Publishers. د کتاب پاڼې 13. The beginning of the language, now known as Urdu, should therefore, be placed in this period of the earlier Hindu Muslim contact in the Sindh and Punjab areas that took place in early quarter of the 8th century A.D. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  35. Jain, Danesh; Cardona, George (2007). The Indo-Aryan Languages (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). Routledge. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-1-135-79711-9. The primary sources of non-IA loans into MSH are Arabic, Persian, Portuguese, Turkic and English. Conversational registers of Hindi/Urdu (not to mentioned formal registers of Urdu) employ large numbers of Persian and Arabic loanwords, although in Sanskritised registers many of these words are replaced by tatsama forms from Sanskrit. The Persian and Arabic lexical elements in Hindi result from the effects of centuries of Islamic administrative rule over much of north India in the centuries before the establishment of British rule in India. Although it is conventional to differentiate among Persian and Arabic loan elements into Hindi/Urdu, in practice it is often difficult to separate these strands from one another. The Arabic (and also Turkic) lexemes borrowed into Hindi frequently were mediated through Persian, as a result of which a thorough intertwining of Persian and Arabic elements took place, as manifest by such phenomena as hybrid compounds and compound words. Moreover, although the dominant trajectory of lexical borrowing was from Arabic into Persian, and thence into Hindi/Urdu, examples can be found of words that in origin are actually Persian loanwords into both Arabic and Hindi/Urdu. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  36. English-Urdu Learner's Dictionary (په انګرېزي ژبه کي). Multi Linguis. 6 March 2021. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-1-005-94089-8. ** History (Simplified) ** Proto-Indo European > Proto-Indo-Iranian > Proto-Indo-Aryan > Vedic Sanskrit > Classical Sanskrit > Sauraseni Prakrit > Sauraseni Apabhramsa > Old Hindi > Hindustani > Urdu الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)صيانة CS1: لغة غير مدعومة (link)
  37. Kesavan, B. S. (1997). History Of Printing And Publishing in India (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). National Book Trust, India. د کتاب پاڼې 31. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-81-237-2120-0. It might be useful to recall here that Old Hindi or Hindavi, which was a naturally Persian- mixed language in the largest measure, has played this role before, as we have seen, for five or six centuries. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  38. Sisir Kumar Das (2005). History of Indian Literature (په انګرېزي ژبه کي). Sahitya Akademi. د کتاب پاڼې 142. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-81-7201-006-5. The most important trend in the history of Hindi-Urdu is the process of Persianization on the one hand and that of Sanskritization on the other. Amrit Rai offers evidence to show that although the employment of Perso-Arabic script for the language which was akin to Hindi/Hindavi or old Hindi was the first step towards the establishment of the separate identity of Urdu, it was called Hindi for a long time. "The final and complete change-over to the new name took place after the content of the language had undergone a drastic change." He further observes: "In the light of the literature that has come down to us, for about six hundred years, the development of Hindi/Hindavi seems largely to substantiate the view of the basic unity of the two languages. Then, sometime in the first quarter of the eighteenth century, the cleavage seems to have begun." Rai quotes from Sadiq, who points out how it became a "systematic policy of poets and scholars" of the eighteenth century to weed out, what they called and thought, "vulgar words." This weeding out meant "the elimination, along with some rough and unmusical plebian words, of a large number of Hindi words for the reason that to the people brought up in Persian traditions they appeared unfamiliar and vulgar." Sadiq concludes: hence the paradox that this crusade against Persian tyranny, instead of bringing Urdu close to the indigenous element, meant in reality a wider gulf between it and the popular speech. But what differentiated Urdu still more from the local dialects was a process of ceaseless importation from Persian. It may seem strange that Urdu writers in rebellion against Persian should decide to draw heavily on Persian vocabulary, idioms, forms, and sentiments. . . . Around 1875 in his word Urdu Sarf O Nahr, however, he presented a balanced view pointing out that attempts of the Maulavis to Persianize and of the Pandits to Sanskritize the language were not only an error but against the natural laws of linguistic growth. The common man, he pointed out, used both Persian and Sanskrit words without any qualms; الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)صيانة CS1: لغة غير مدعومة (link)
  39. Taj, Afroz (1997). "About Hindi-Urdu" (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. مؤرشف من الأصل في ۱۵ اگسټ ۲۰۰۹. د لاسرسي‌نېټه ۳۰ جون ۲۰۱۹. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  40. "Two Languages or One?". hindiurduflagship.org. مؤرشف من الأصل في ۱۱ مارچ ۲۰۱۵. د لاسرسي‌نېټه ۲۹ مارچ ۲۰۱۵. Hindi and Urdu developed from the "khari boli" dialect spoken in the Delhi region of northern India. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  41. Kesavan, B. S. (1997). History Of Printing And Publishing in India (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). National Book Trust, India. د کتاب پاڼې 31. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-81-237-2120-0. It might be useful to recall here that Old Hindi or Hindavi, which was a naturally Persian- mixed language in the largest measure, has played this role before, as we have seen, for five or six centuries. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  42. Bhat, M. Ashraf (2017). The Changing Language Roles and Linguistic Identities of the Kashmiri Speech Community (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). Cambridge Scholars Publishing. د کتاب پاڼې 72. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-1-4438-6260-8. Although it has borrowed a large number of lexical items from Persian and some from Turkish, it is a derivative of Hindvi (also called 'early Urdu'), the parent of both modern Hindi and Urdu. It originated as a new, common language of Delhi, which has been called Hindavi or Dahlavi by Amir Khusrau. After the advent of the Mughals on the stage of Indian history, the Hindavi language enjoyed greater space and acceptance. Persian words and phrases came into vogue. The Hindavi of that period was known as Rekhta, or Hindustani, and only later as Urdu. Perfect amity and tolerance between Hindus and Muslims tended to foster Rekhta or Urdu, which represented the principle of unity in diversity, thus marking a feature of Indian life at its best. The ordinary spoken version ('bazaar Urdu') was almost identical to the popularly spoken version of Hindi. Most prominent scholars in India hold the view that Urdu is neither a Muslim nor a Hindu language; it is an outcome of a multicultural and multi-religious encounter. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  43. Strnad, Jaroslav (2013). Morphology and Syntax of Old Hindī: Edition and Analysis of One Hundred Kabīr vānī Poems from Rājasthān (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). Brill Academic Publishers. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-90-04-25489-3. Quite different group of nouns occurring with the ending -a in the dir. plural consists of words of Arabic or Persian origin borrowed by the Old Hindi with their Persian plural endings. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  44. Rahman, Tariq (2001). From Hindi to Urdu: A Social and Political History (PDF). Oxford University Press. د کتاب پاڼي 1–22. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-19-906313-0. د اصلي (PDF) آرشيف څخه پر ۱۰ اکتوبر ۲۰۱۴ باندې. د لاسرسي‌نېټه ۰۷ اکتوبر ۲۰۱۴. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  45. Taj, Afroz (1997). "About Hindi-Urdu" (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. مؤرشف من الأصل في ۱۵ اگسټ ۲۰۰۹. د لاسرسي‌نېټه ۳۰ جون ۲۰۱۹. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  46. Khan, Abdul Rashid (2001). The All India Muslim Educational Conference: Its Contribution to the Cultural Development of Indian Muslims, 1886-1947 (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). Oxford University Press. د کتاب پاڼې 152. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-19-579375-8. After the conquest of the Deccan, Urdu received the liberal patronage of the courts of Golconda and Bijapur. Consequently, Urdu borrowed words from the local language of Telugu and Marathi as well as from Sanskrit. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  47. Luniya, Bhanwarlal Nathuram (1978). Life and Culture in Medieval India (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). Kamal Prakashan. د کتاب پاڼې 311. Under the liberal patronage of the courts of Golconda and Bijapur, Urdu borrowed words from the local languages like Telugu and Marathi as well as from Sanskrit, but its themes were moulded on Persian models. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  48. Kesavan, Bellary Shamanna (1985). History of Printing and Publishing in India: Origins of printing and publishing in the Hindi heartland (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). National Book Trust. د کتاب پاڼې 7. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-81-237-2120-0. The Mohammedans of the Deccan thus called their Hindustani tongue Dakhani (Dakhini), Gujari or Bhaka (Bhakha) which was a symbol of their belonging to Muslim conquering and ruling group in the Deccan and South India where overwhelming number of Hindus spoke Marathi, Kannada, Telugu and Tamil. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  49. "Amīr Khosrow - Indian poet". الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  50. Jaswant Lal Mehta (1980). Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India. 1. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. د کتاب پاڼې 10. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 9788120706170. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  51. Bakshi, Shiri Ram; Mittra, Sangh (2002). Hazart Nizam-Ud-Din Auliya and Hazrat Khwaja Muinuddin Chisti (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). Criterion. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 9788179380222. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  52. "Urdu language". Encyclopædia Britannica. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  53. Rahman, Tariq (2001). From Hindi to Urdu: A Social and Political History (PDF). Oxford University Press. د کتاب پاڼي 1–22. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-19-906313-0. د اصلي (PDF) آرشيف څخه پر ۱۰ اکتوبر ۲۰۱۴ باندې. د لاسرسي‌نېټه ۰۷ اکتوبر ۲۰۱۴. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  54. Bhat, M. Ashraf (2017). The Changing Language Roles and Linguistic Identities of the Kashmiri Speech Community (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). Cambridge Scholars Publishing. د کتاب پاڼې 72. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-1-4438-6260-8. Although it has borrowed a large number of lexical items from Persian and some from Turkish, it is a derivative of Hindvi (also called 'early Urdu'), the parent of both modern Hindi and Urdu. It originated as a new, common language of Delhi, which has been called Hindavi or Dahlavi by Amir Khusrau. After the advent of the Mughals on the stage of Indian history, the Hindavi language enjoyed greater space and acceptance. Persian words and phrases came into vogue. The Hindavi of that period was known as Rekhta, or Hindustani, and only later as Urdu. Perfect amity and tolerance between Hindus and Muslims tended to foster Rekhta or Urdu, which represented the principle of unity in diversity, thus marking a feature of Indian life at its best. The ordinary spoken version ('bazaar Urdu') was almost identical to the popularly spoken version of Hindi. Most prominent scholars in India hold the view that Urdu is neither a Muslim nor a Hindu language; it is an outcome of a multicultural and multi-religious encounter. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  55. Rahman, Tariq (2001). From Hindi to Urdu: A Social and Political History (PDF). Oxford University Press. د کتاب پاڼي 1–22. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-19-906313-0. د اصلي (PDF) آرشيف څخه پر ۱۰ اکتوبر ۲۰۱۴ باندې. د لاسرسي‌نېټه ۰۷ اکتوبر ۲۰۱۴. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  56. Rauf Parekh (25 August 2014). "Literary Notes: Common misconceptions about Urdu". dawn.com. مؤرشف من الأصل في ۲۵ جنوري ۲۰۱۵. د لاسرسي‌نېټه ۲۹ مارچ ۲۰۱۵. Urdu did not get its present name till late 18th Century and before that had had a number of different names – including Hindi, Hindvi, Hindustani, Dehlvi, Gujri, Dakkani, Lahori and even Moors – though it was born much earlier. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  57. Malik, Muhammad Kamran, and Syed Mansoor Sarwar. "Named entity recognition system for postpositional languages: urdu as a case study." International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications 7.10 (2016): 141-147.
  58. Clyne, Michael G. (1992). Pluricentric Languages: Differing Norms in Different Nations (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). Walter de Gruyter. د کتاب پاڼې 383. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 9783110128550. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  59. Alyssa Ayres (23 July 2009). Speaking Like a State: Language and Nationalism in Pakistan. Cambridge University Press. د کتاب پاڼې 19. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 9780521519311. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  60. First Encyclopaedia of Islam: 1913–1936 (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). Brill Academic Publishers. 1993. د کتاب پاڼې 1024. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 9789004097964. Whilst the Muhammadan rulers of India spoke Persian, which enjoyed the prestige of being their court language, the common language of the country continued to be Hindi, derived through Prakrit from Sanskrit. On this dialect of the common people was grafted the Persian language, which brought a new language, Urdu, into existence. Sir George Grierson, in the Linguistic Survey of India, assigns no distinct place to Urdu, but treats it as an offshoot of Western Hindi. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  61. Strnad, Jaroslav (2013). Morphology and Syntax of Old Hindī: Edition and Analysis of One Hundred Kabīr vānī Poems from Rājasthān (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). Brill Academic Publishers. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-90-04-25489-3. Quite different group of nouns occurring with the ending -a in the dir. plural consists of words of Arabic or Persian origin borrowed by the Old Hindi with their Persian plural endings. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  62. Faruqi, Shamsur Rahman (2003), Sheldon Pollock (المحرر), A Long History of Urdu Literary Culture Part 1, University of California Press, د کتاب پاڼې 806, د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-520-22821-4 الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  63. Rahman, Tariq (2001). From Hindi to Urdu: A Social and Political History (PDF). Oxford University Press. د کتاب پاڼي 1–22. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-19-906313-0. د اصلي (PDF) آرشيف څخه پر ۱۰ اکتوبر ۲۰۱۴ باندې. د لاسرسي‌نېټه ۰۷ اکتوبر ۲۰۱۴. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  64. Coatsworth, John (2015). Global Connections: Politics, Exchange, and Social Life in World History. United States: Cambridge Univ Pr. د کتاب پاڼې 159. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 9780521761062. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  65. Tariq Rahman (2011). "Urdu as the Language of Education in British India". Pakistan Journal of History and Culture (NIHCR) 32 (2): 1–42. http://www.nihcr.edu.pk/Latest_English_Journal/1.%20URDU%20AS%20THE%20LANGUAGE,%20Tariq%20Rahman%20FINAL.pdf. 
  66. Delacy, Richard; Ahmed, Shahara (2005). Hindi, Urdu & Bengali. Lonely Planet. د کتاب پاڼي 11–12. Hindi and Urdu are generally considered to be one spoken language with two different literary traditions. That means that Hindi and Urdu speakers who shop in the same markets (and watch the same Bollywood films) have no problems understanding each other -- they'd both say yeh kitne kaa hay for 'How much is it?' -- but the written form for Hindi will be यह कितने का है? and the Urdu one will be یہ کتنے کا ہے؟ Hindi is written from left to right in the Devanagari script, and is the official language of India, along with English. Urdu, on the other hand, is written from right to left in the Nastaliq script (a modified form of the Arabic script) and is the national language of Pakistan. It's also one of the official languages of the Indian states of Bihar and Jammu & Kashmir. Considered as one, these tongues constitute the second most spoken language in the world, sometimes called Hindustani. In their daily lives, Hindi and Urdu speakers communicate in their 'different' languages without major problems. ... Both Hindi and Urdu developed from Classical Sanskrit, which appeared in the Indus Valley (modern Pakistan and northwest India) at about the start of the Common Era. The first old Hindi (or Apabhransha) poetry was written in the year 769 AD, and by the European Middle Ages it became known as 'Hindvi'. Muslim Turks invaded the Punjab in 1027 and took control of Delhi in 1193. They paved the way for the Islamic Mughal Empire, which ruled northern India from the 16th century until it was defeated by the British Raj in the mid-19th century. It was at this time that the language of this book began to take form, a mixture of Hindvi grammar with Arabic, Persian and Turkish vocabulary. The Muslim speakers of Hindvi began to write in the Arabic script, creating Urdu, while the Hindu population incorporated the new words but continued to write in Devanagari script. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  67. Holt, P. M.; Lambton, Ann K. S.; Lewis, Bernard, المحررون (1977). The Cambridge History of Islam. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. د کتاب پاڼې 723. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-521-29138-0. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  68. Christine Everaert (2010). Tracing the Boundaries Between Hindi and Urdu. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-9004177314. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  69. Varma, Siddheshwar (1973). G. A. Grierson's Linguistic Survey of India. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  70. Khan, Abdul Jamil (2006). Urdu/Hindi: An Artificial Divide: African Heritage, Mesopotamian Root. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 9780875864372. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)