د "گڼرسنۍ" د بڼو تر مېنځ توپير

۱۶٬۷۱۴ ټکی لري شوه ،  ۱۰ کاله مخکې
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'''Multimedia''' is [[media (communication)|media]] and [[content (media and publishing)|content]] that uses a combination of different [[content format|content forms]]. The term can be used as a noun (a medium with multiple content forms) or as an adjective describing a medium as having multiple content forms. The term is used in contrast to media which only use traditional forms of printed or hand-produced material. Multimedia includes a combination of [[Writing|text]], [[Sound|audio]], [[image|still images]], [[animation]], [[Footage|video]], and [[interactivity]] content forms.
 
Multimedia is usually recorded and played, displayed or accessed by [[information|information content]] processing devices, such as computerized and electronic devices, but can also be part of a live performance. ''Multimedia'' (as an adjective) also describes [[electronic media]] devices used to store and experience multimedia content. Multimedia is distinguished from [[mixed media]] in [[fine art]]; by including audio, for example, it has a broader scope. The term "rich media" is synonymous for [[interactive media|interactive multimedia]]. [[Hypermedia]] can be considered one particular multimedia application.
 
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د مېنځپانګو بېلګې د ګڼرسنیو په بڼه:
Examples of individual content forms combined in multimedia:
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'''ګڼرسنۍ'''، له ګڼو رسنیو لکه: غږ، انځور، ویډیو. سیلن ... څخه یوځای د استوزې د استولو لپاره ګټې اخیستې ته ګڼرسنۍ وایی.
== Categorization of multimedia ==
Multimedia may be broadly divided into '''linear''' and '''non-linear''' categories. Linear active content progresses without any navigational control for the viewer such as a [[movie theater|cinema presentation]]. Non-linear content offers user [[interactivity]] to control progress as used with a [[computer game]] or used in self-paced [[computer based training]]. [[Hypermedia]] is an example of non-linear content.
 
Multimedia [[presentation]]s can be live or recorded. A recorded presentation may allow interactivity via a [[Spatial navigation|navigation system]]. A live multimedia presentation may allow interactivity via an interaction with the presenter or performer.
 
== Major characteristics of multimedia ==
'''Multimedia presentations''' may be viewed in person on [[Stage (theatre)|stage]], [[projector|projected]], [[transmitted]], or played locally with a [[media player]]. A [[broadcasting|broadcast]] may be a live or recorded multimedia presentation. Broadcasts and recordings can be either [[Analogue electronics|analog]] or [[Digital circuit|digital]] electronic media technology. Digital [[online]] multimedia may be downloaded or [[Streaming media|streamed]]. Streaming multimedia may be live or on-demand.
 
'''Multimedia games and simulations''' may be used in a physical environment with special effects, with multiple users in an online [[Computer networking|network]], or locally with an offline computer, [[game console|game system]], or [[simulator]].
 
The various formats of technological or digital multimedia may be intended to enhance the users' experience, for example to make it easier and faster to convey information. Or in entertainment or art, to transcend everyday experience.
 
[[دوتنه:Classical spectacular laser effects.jpg|200px|thumb|right|A [[Laser lighting display|lasershow]] is a live multimedia performance.]]
Enhanced levels of interactivity are made possible by combining multiple forms of media content. [[Online]] multimedia is increasingly becoming object-oriented and data-driven, enabling applications with [[Collaborative software|collaborative]] [[User innovation|end-user innovation]] and [[personalized|personalization]] on multiple forms of content over time. Examples of these range from multiple forms of content on Web sites like photo galleries with both images (pictures) and title (text) user-updated, to simulations whose co-efficients, events, illustrations, animations or videos are modifiable, allowing the multimedia "experience" to be altered without reprogramming. In addition to seeing and hearing, [[Haptic]] technology enables virtual objects to be felt. Emerging technology involving illusions of [[taste]] and [[odor|smell]] may also enhance the multimedia experience.
 
== Terminology ==
=== History of the term ===
 
The term "multimedia" was coined {{Fact|date=August 2009}} by Bob Goldstein (later '[[Bobb Goldsteinn]]') to promote the July 1966 opening of his "LightWorks at L'Oursin" show at [[Southampton]], Long Island. On August 10, 1966, Richard Albarino of [[Variety (magazine)|Variety]] borrowed the terminology, reporting: “Brainchild of songscribe-comic Bob (‘[[Washington Square (song)|Washington Square]]’) Goldstein, the ‘Lightworks’ is the latest ''multi-media'' music-cum-visuals to debut as discotheque fare.” <ref>Richard Albarino, "Goldstein's LightWorks at Southhampton," ''Variety'', August 10, 1966. Vol. 213, No. 12.</ref>. Two years later, in [[1968]], the term “multimedia” was re-appropriated to describe the work of a political consultant, David Sawyer, the husband of Iris Sawyer—one of Goldstein’s producers at L’Oursin.
 
In the intervening forty years, the word has taken on different meanings. In the late 1970s the term was used to describe presentations consisting of multi-projector slide shows timed to an audio track.{{Fact|date=July 2008}} However, by the 1990s 'multimedia' took on its current meaning. The German language usage society, Gesellschaft fur deutsche Sprachgebrauch, decided to recognize the word's significance and ubiquitousness in the 1990s by awarding it the title of 'Word of the Year' in 1995. The institute summed up its rationale by stating "[Multimedia] has become a central word in the wonderful new media world"<ref>''Variety'', January 1-7, 1996.</ref>
 
In common usage, the term multimedia refers to an electronically delivered combination of media including video, still images, audio, text in such a way that can be accessed interactively. Much of the content on the web today falls within this definition as understood by millions. Some computers which were marketed in the 1990s were called "multimedia" computers because they incorporated a CD-ROM drive, which allowed for the delivery of several hundred megabytes of video, picture, and audio data.
 
=== Word usage and context ===
Since media is the plural of medium, the term "multimedia" is a [[pleonasm]] if "multi" is used to describe multiple occurrences of only one form of media such as a collection of [[CD|audio CDs]]. This is why it's important that the word "multimedia" is used exclusively to describe '''multiple forms''' of media and content.
 
The term "multimedia" is also ambiguous. Static content (such as a paper book) may be considered multimedia if it contains both pictures and text or may be considered interactive if the user interacts by turning pages at will. Books may also be considered non-linear if the pages are accessed non-sequentially. The term "video", if not used exclusively to describe motion photography, is ambiguous in multimedia terminology. ''[[Video]]'' is often used to describe the file format, delivery format, or presentation format instead of ''"[[footage]]"'' which is used to distinguish motion photography from ''"[[animation]]"'' of [[Artistic rendering|rendered]] motion imagery. Multiple forms of information content are often not considered multimedia if they don't contain modern forms of presentation such as audio or video. Likewise, single forms of information content with single methods of information processing (e.g. non-interactive audio) are often called multimedia, perhaps to distinguish [[:wiktionary:static|static]] media from [[:wiktionary:active|active]] media. In the [[Fine arts]], for example, Leda Luss Luyken's [[ModulArt]] brings two key elements of musical composition and film into the world of painting: variation of a theme and movement of and within a picture, making ''ModulArt'' an [[interactive]] multimedia form of art. [[Performing arts]] may also be considered multimedia considering that performers and [[theatrical property|props]] are multiple forms of both content and media.
 
== Usage ==
 
[[دوتنه:StevenKooninBP20050222 CopyrightKaihsuTai.jpg|thumb|right|A presentation using [[Microsoft PowerPoint|Powerpoint]]. Corporate presentations may combine all forms of media content.]]
[[دوتنه:AC89-0437-20 a.jpeg|right|thumb|[[Virtual reality]] uses multimedia content. Applications and [[Platform (computing)|delivery platforms]] of multimedia are virtually limitless.]]
[[دوتنه:VVO Multimedia-Terminal 1.JPG|thumb|right|VVO Multimedia-Terminal in [[Dresden]] WTC (Germany)]]
Multimedia finds its application in various areas including, but not limited to, [[Advertising|advertisements]], [[art]], [[education]], [[entertainment]], [[engineering]], [[medicine]], [[mathematics]], [[business]], [[scientific research]] and [[Visual thinking|spatial temporal applications]]. Several examples are as follows:
 
==== Creative industries ====
[[Creative industries]] use multimedia for a variety of purposes ranging from fine arts, to entertainment, to commercial art, to [[journalism]], to media and software services provided for any of the industries listed below. An individual multimedia designer may cover the spectrum throughout their career. Request for their skills range from technical, to analytical, to creative.
 
===== Commercial =====
Much of the electronic [[old media|old]] and [[new media]] used by commercial artists is multimedia. Exciting presentations are used to grab and keep attention in [[advertising]]. Business to business, and interoffice communications are often developed by [[creative services]] firms for advanced multimedia presentations beyond simple slide shows to sell ideas or liven-up training. Commercial multimedia developers may be hired to design for [[governmental services]] and [[Nonprofit|nonprofit services]] applications as well.
 
===== Entertainment and fine arts =====
In addition, multimedia is heavily used in the entertainment industry, especially to develop [[special effects]] in movies and animations. Multimedia games are a popular pastime and are software programs available either as CD-ROMs or online. Some [[video game]]s also use multimedia features.
Multimedia applications that allow users to actively participate instead of just sitting by as passive recipients of information are called ''Interactive Multimedia''.
In the [[Arts]] there are [[multimedia art]]ists, whose minds are able to blend techniques using different media that in some way incorporates interaction with the viewer. One of the most relevant could be [[Peter Greenaway]] who is melding [[Film|Cinema]] with [[Opera]] and all sorts of digital media. Another approach entails the creation of multimedia that can be displayed in a traditional fine arts arena, such as an [[art gallery]]. Although multimedia display material may be volatile, the survivability of the content is as strong as any traditional media. Digital recording material may be just as durable and infinitely reproducible with perfect copies every time.
 
==== Education ====
In [[Education]], multimedia is used to produce [[computer-based training]] courses (popularly called CBTs) and reference books like encyclopedia and almanacs. A CBT lets the user go through a series of presentations, text about a particular topic, and associated illustrations in various information formats. [[Edutainment]] is an informal term used to describe combining education with entertainment, especially multimedia entertainment.
 
Learning theory in the past decade has expanded dramatically because of the introduction of multimedia. Several lines of research have evolved (e.g. [[Cognitive load]], [[Multimedia learning]], and the list goes on). The possibilities for learning and instruction are nearly endless.
 
The idea of media convergence is also becoming a major factor in education, particularly higher education. Defined as separate technologies such as voice (and telephony features), data (and productivity applications) and video that now share resources and interact with each other, synergistically creating new efficiencies, media convergence is rapidly changing the curriculum in universities all over the world. Likewise, it is changing the availibility, or lack thereof, of jobs requiring this savvy technological skill.
 
Newpaper companies all over are also trying to embrace the new phenomenon by implementing it's practices in their work. While some have been slow to come around, other major newspapers like The New York Times, USA Today and The Washington Post are setting the precedent for the positioning of the newspaper industry in a globalized world.
 
==== Engineering ====
[[Software engineer]]s may use multimedia in [[Simulations#Computer simulators|Computer Simulations]] for anything from entertainment to [[training]] such as military or industrial training. Multimedia for [[software interface]]s are often done as a collaboration between [[creative professional]]s and software engineers.
 
==== Industry ====
In the [[Industry|Industrial sector]], multimedia is used as a way to help present information to shareholders, superiors and coworkers. <!-- Besides, other applications also include into this but not limited to [[entertainment]] and [[business]]. -->Multimedia is also helpful for providing employee training, advertising and selling products all over the world via virtually unlimited web-based technologies.
 
==== Mathematical and scientific research ====
In [[mathematics|mathematical]] and [[scientific research]], multimedia is mainly used for modelling and simulation. For example, a [[scientist]] can look at a [[Molecular modelling|molecular model]] of a particular substance and manipulate it to arrive at a new substance. Representative research can be found in journals such as the [[Journal of Multimedia]].
 
==== Medicine ====
In [[Medicine]], [[Physician|doctors]] can get trained by looking at a virtual [[surgery]] or they can simulate how the [[human body]] is affected by [[disease]]s spread by [[virus]]es and [[bacterium|bacteria]] and then develop techniques to prevent it.
 
==== Document Imaging ====
[[Document Imaging]] is a technique that takes hard copy of an image/document and converts it into a digital format
 
=== Miscellaneous ===
In Europe, the reference organization for Multimedia industry is the [[European Multimedia Associations Convention]] (EMMAC).
 
== Structuring information in a multimedia form ==
Multimedia represents the [[Technological convergence|convergence]] of text, pictures, video and sound into a single form. The power of multimedia and the Internet lies in the way in which information is linked.
 
Multimedia and the Internet require a completely new approach to writing. The style of writing that is appropriate for the 'on-line world' is highly optimized and designed to be able to be quickly scanned by readers. <ref>Stewart, C and Kowaltzke, A. 1997, Media: New Ways and Meanings (second edition), JACARANDa, Milton, Sydney. pp.102.</ref>
 
A good site must be made with a specific purpose in mind and a site with good interactivity and new technology can also be useful for attracting visitors. The site must be attractive and innovative in its design, function in terms of its purpose, easy to navigate, frequently updated and fast to download. <ref>Jennifer Story, from Next Online,2002.</ref>
 
When users view a page, they can only view one page at a time. As a result, multimedia users must create a ‘mental model of information structure’.<ref>Lynch P., Yale University Web Style Manual, Http://info.med.yale.edu/caim/manual/sites/site_structure.heml.</ref>
 
[[Patrick Lynch]], author of the Yale University Web Style Manual, states that users need predictability and structure, with clear functional and graphical continuity between the various components and subsections of the multimedia production. In this way, the home page of any multimedia production should always be a landmark, able to be accessed from anywhere within a multimedia piece.
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== Conferences ==
There are a large number of multimedia conferences, the two main scholarly scientific conferences being:
* [[ACM Multimedia]];
* [[IEEE ICME]], International Conference on Multimedia & Expo.
 
== See also ==
* [[Cross media]]
* [[Multimedia literacy]]
* [[Multimedia Messaging Service]]
* [[Postliterate society]]
 
== References ==
{{reflist}}
 
== External links ==
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* [http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~edtech/688/hist.htm History of Multimedia from the University of Calgary]
 
[[وېشنيزه:Multimediaګڼرسنۍ| ]]
[[وېشنيزه:Communicationد designاړیکتیاو سکښت]]
[[وېشنيزه:Designسکښت]]
[[وېشنيزه:Film and video terminology]]
[[وېشنيزه:Film production]]
 
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