د "لوبغاړی" د بڼو تر مېنځ توپير

۱۸٬۳۶۴ ټکی لري شوه ،  ۹ کاله مخکې
د سمون لنډيز پرته
و (r2.5.2) (روباټ زیاتول: en, ur لرې کول: es, ps بدلول: tr)
</ref> The ancient Greek word for an "actor," {{polytonic|[[wikt:ὑποκριτής|ὑποκριτής]]}} ''(hypokrites)'', means literally "one who interprets";<ref name="hypocrite">''Hypokrites'' (related to our word for [[Hypocrisy|hypocrite]]) also means, less often, "to answer" the [[Tragedy|tragic]] [[Greek chorus|chorus]]. See Weimann (1978, 2); see also Csapo and Slater, who offer translations of classical source material that utilises the term ''hypocrisis'' ([[acting]]) (1994, 257, 265–267).</ref> in this sense, an actor is one who interprets a dramatic [[Character (arts)|character]] or [[personality]].<ref name="confused">This is true whether the character than an actor plays is based on a real person or a fictional one, even themselves (when the actor is 'playing themselves,' as in some forms of experimental [[performance art]], or, more commonly, as in John Malkovich's performance in the film ''[[Being John Malkovich]]''); to act is to create a character in performance: "The dramatic world can be extended to include the 'author', the 'audience' and even the 'theatre'; but these remain 'possible' surrogates, not the 'actual' referents as such" (Elam 1980, 110).</ref>
== Terminology ==
The word ''actor'' refers to a person who acts regardless of gender, while ''actress'' refers specifically to a female person who acts; therefore a female can be referred to by either term. The [[Oxford English Dictionary]] states that originally "actor" was used for both sexes. The English word ''actress'' does not derive from the Latin ''actrix'', probably not even by way of French ''actrice''; according to the Oxford English Dictionary, ''actress'' was "probably formed independently" in English. As ''actress'' is a specifically feminine word, some groups assert that the word is sexist. Gender-neutral usage of ''actor'' has re-emerged in modern English,<ref>dictionary.com ''[http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/actor actor]'' retrieved 13 November 2007</ref><ref name="latimes">{{cite web|url=http://articles.latimes.com/2009/jan/18/entertainment/ca-actress18|title=From actor to actress and back again|last=Linden|first=Sheri|date=18 January 2009 |work=Entertainment|publisher=Los Angeles Times|accessdate=2009-03-14|quote=It would be several decades before the word "actress" appeared -- 1700, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, more than a century after the word "actor" was first used to denote a theatrical performer, supplanting the less professional-sounding "player."}}</ref> especially when referring to male and female performers collectively, but ''actress'' remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients and is common in general usage.
The gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the early days of the [[Motion Picture Production Code]] with regards to the [[cinema of the United States]], but is now generally deemed [[archaism|archaic]]. However, it remains in use in the theatre, often incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company (such as the [[East West Players]]).
== History ==
[[Image:Flickr 6130489.jpg|thumb|Actors [[Jim Brochu]] and [[Steve Schalchlin]] performing in ''The Big Voice: God or Merman'' [[Play (theatre)|play]].]]
The first recorded case of an actor performing took place in 534 BC (though the changes in calendar over the years make it hard to determine exactly) when the [[Greece|Greek]] performer [[Thespis]] stepped on to the stage at the ''Theatre Dionysus'' and became the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, stories were only known to be told in [[song]] and dance and in [[Perspective (storytelling)|third person]] narrative. In honour of Thespis, actors are commonly called ''Thespians''. Theatrical legend to this day maintains that Thespis exists as a mischievous spirit, and disasters in the theatre are sometimes blamed on his [[ghost]]ly intervention.
Actors were traditionally not people of high status, and in the [[Early Middle Ages]] travelling acting troupes were often viewed with distrust. In many parts of Europe, actors could not even receive a Christian burial, and traditional beliefs of the region and time period held that this left any actor forever condemned. However, this negative perception was largely reversed in the 19th and 20th centuries as acting has become an honoured and popular profession and art.<ref>{{Cite book | author=Wilmeth, Don B.; Bigsby, C.W.E. | authorlink= | coauthors= | title=The Cambridge history of American theatre | year=1998 | publisher=Cambridge University Press | location=Cambridge, U.K. | isbn=978-0-521-65179-0 | pages=449–450}}</ref>
== Techniques ==
=== Method acting ===
{{Main|Method acting}}
Method acting is a technique developed from the acting [[Stanislavski's system|"system"]] created in the early [[Twentieth-century theatre|20th century]] by [[Constantin Stanislavski]] in his work at the [[Moscow Art Theatre]] and its studios. The [[Group Theatre (New York)]] first popularised the Method in the 1930s; it was subsequently advanced and developed in new directions by [[Lee Strasberg]] at the [[Actors Studio]] in the 1940s and 50s.<ref>
{{cite web
|title=Where the Gurus of Method Acting Part
|publisher=The New York Times
|date=4 May 1987|accessdate=2009-03-28
In Stanislavski's "system" the actor analyses deeply the motivations and emotions of the character in order to personify him or her with psychological realism and emotional authenticity. Using the Method, an actor recalls emotions or reactions from his or her own life and uses them to identify with the character being portrayed.
Method actors are often characterized as immersing themselves so totally in their characters that they continue to portray them even off-stage or off-camera for the duration of the project. However, this is a popular misconception. While some actors do employ this approach, it is generally not taught as part of the Method. [[Stella Adler]], who was a member of the Group Theatre, along with Strasberg, emphasised a different approach of using creative imagination.<ref name=stel>{{cite web
|title=Stella Adler, 91, an Actress And Teacher of the Method
|publisher=The New York Times
|date=22 December 1992|accessdate=2009-03-28
|first=Peter B.
Method acting offered a systematized training that developed internal abilities (sensory, psychological, emotional); it revolutionized [[Theater in the United States|American theater]]
=== Presentational and representational acting ===
{{Main|Presentational acting and Representational acting}}
Presentational acting refers to a relationship between actor and audience, whether by direct address or indirectly by specific use of language, looks, gestures or other [[Semiotics|signs]] indicating that the character or actor is aware of the audience's presence.<ref name=trumbull>
{{cite web
|title=Introduction to Theatre -- The Actor
|first=Dr. Eric W
</ref> (Shakespeare's use of [[pun]]ning and [[Word play|wordplay]], for example, often has this function of indirect contact.)
In representational acting, "actors want to make us 'believe' they are the character; they pretend."<ref name=trumbull /> The illusion of the fourth wall with the audience as voyeurs is striven for.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://learn.midsouthcc.edu/LearningObjects/Fine%20Arts%20Theatre/rtfs/whatisthetheatre.rtf|title=What is the Theatre?|last=Field|first=Mary|work=Shared Learning Objects|publisher=Mid South Community College|format=rtf|accessdate=2009-03-28}}</ref>
=== As opposite gender ===
In the past, only men could become actors in some societies. In the ancient Greece and Rome<ref>[http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/womanshour/2002_52_fri_04.shtml Women Actors in Ancient Rome] 27 December 2002, BBC</ref> and the [[Middle Ages|medieval world]], it was considered disgraceful for a woman to go on the stage, and this belief continued right up until the 17th century, when in [[Venice]] it was broken. In the time of [[William Shakespeare]], women's roles were generally played by men or boys.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://csmt.uchicago.edu/glossary2004/narrativelyricdrama.htm|title=narrative, lyric, drama|last=Neziroski |first=Lirim|year=2003|work=Theories of Media :: Keywords Glossary :: multimedia|publisher=University of Chicago|accessdate=2009-03-14|quote=For example, until the late 1600s, audiences were opposed to seeing women on stage, because they believed it reduced them to the status of showgirls and prostitutes. Even Shakespeare's plays were performed by boys dressed in drag.}}</ref>
When an eighteen year [[Puritan]] prohibition of [[Restoration drama|drama]] was lifted after the [[English Restoration]] of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. [[Margaret Hughes]] is credited by some as the first professional actress on the English stage.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,,1534673,00.html|title=Smallweed|last=Smallweed|date=23 July 2005|publisher=The Guardian|accessdate=2009-03-14|quote="Whereas women's parts in plays have hitherto been acted by men in the habits of women ... we do permit and give leave for the time to come that all women's parts be acted by women," Charles II ordained in 1662. According to Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, the first actress to exploit this new freedom was Margaret Hughes, as Desdemona in Othello on December 8, 1660.}}</ref> This prohibition ended during the reign of [[Charles II of England|Charles II]] in part due to the fact that he enjoyed watching actresses on stage.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=980CEED7153FE533A2575BC1A9669D94649FD7CF|title=Women as actresses|date=18 October 1885|work=Notes and Queries|publisher=The New York Times|accessdate=2009-03-14|quote=There seems no doubt that actresses did not perform on the stage till the Restoration, in the earliest years of which Pepys says for the first time he saw an actress upon the stage. Charles II, must have brought the usage from the Continent, where women had long been employed instead of boys or youths in the representation of female characters. | format=PDF}}</ref> The first occurrence of the term ''actress'' was in 1700 according to the [[OED]] and is ascribed to [[John Dryden|Dryden]].<ref name="latimes" />
In [[Japan]], men ([[onnagata]]) took over the female roles in [[kabuki]] theatre when women were banned from performing on stage during the [[Edo period]]. This convention has continued to the present. However, some forms of [[Culture of China|Chinese]] drama have women playing all the roles.
In modern times, women sometimes play the roles of [[prepubescent]] boys. The stage role of [[Peter Pan]], for example, is traditionally played by a woman, as are most [[principal boy]]s in British [[pantomime]]. [[Opera]] has several "[[breeches role]]s" traditionally sung by women, usually [[mezzo-soprano]]s. Examples are Hansel in ''[[Hänsel und Gretel (opera)|Hänsel und Gretel]]'', [[The Marriage of Figaro#Characters|Cherubino]] in ''[[The Marriage of Figaro]]'' and Octavian in [[Der Rosenkavalier]].
Women in male roles are uncommon in film with the notable exception of the film ''[[The Year of Living Dangerously]]''. In this film [[Linda Hunt]] played the pivotal role of Billy Kwan. She received the [[Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress]] for her performance.
Having an actor dress as the opposite sex for comic effect is also a long standing tradition in comic theatre and film. Most of Shakespeare's comedies include instances of overt [[cross-dressing]], such as [[Francis Flute]] in ''[[A Midsummer Night's Dream]]''. The movie ''[[A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum]]'' stars [[Jack Gilford]] dressing as a young bride. [[Tony Curtis]] and [[Jack Lemmon]] famously posed as women to escape gangsters in the [[Billy Wilder]] film ''[[Some Like It Hot]]''. Cross-dressing for comic effect was a frequently used device in most of the thirty [[Carry On films]]. [[Dustin Hoffman]] and [[Robin Williams]] have each appeared in a hit comedy film (''[[Tootsie]]'' and ''[[Mrs. Doubtfire]]'', respectively) in which they played most scenes dressed as a woman.
== سرچینې ==
Occasionally the issue is further complicated, for example, by a woman playing a woman acting as a man pretending to be a woman, like [[Julie Andrews]] in ''[[Victor/Victoria]]'', or [[Gwyneth Paltrow]] in ''[[Shakespeare in Love]]''. In ''[[It's Pat: The Movie]]'', filmwatchers never learn the gender of the androgynous main characters [[Pat (Saturday Night Live)|Pat]] and Chris (played by [[Julia Sweeney]] and [[Dave Foley]]).
A few roles in modern films, plays and musicals are played by a member of the opposite sex (rather than a character cross-dressing), such as the character Edna Turnblad in ''Hairspray''—played by [[Divine (actor)|Divine]] in the [[Hairspray (1988 film)|original film]], [[Harvey Fierstein]] in the [[Hairspray (musical)|Broadway musical]], and [[John Travolta]] in the [[Hairspray (2007 film)|2007 movie musical]]. [[Linda Hunt]] won an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for playing Billy Kwan in ''[[The Year of Living Dangerously]]''. [[Felicity Huffman]] was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress for playing Bree Osbourne (a man in the process of becoming a woman) in ''[[Transamerica]]''.
== Acting awards ==
* [[Academy Awards]], also known as the Oscars, for American film
* [[Australian Film Institute Awards|AFI Awards]] for Australian film
* [[Berlinale]] German film festival in Berlin (Golden and Silver Bear)
* [[British Academy of Film and Television Arts|British Academy of Film and Television Arts Award]] for film and television; also known as [[BAFTA]]
* [[Cannes Film Festival|Cannes Film Festival Awards]]
* [[César Award]]s for French film
* [[Emmy Award]]s for American television
* European Theatre Awards for the theatre
* [[FAMAS Awards]] for Filipino cinema
* [[Filmfare Awards]] honors excellence in the Indian Film Industry ([[Bollywood]]) – limited to Hindi language films only
* [[Filmfare Awards South]] honors excellence in the Indian Film Industry ([[South Indian]]) – limited to [[Tamil language|Tamil]], [[Malayalam]], [[Telugu]], [[Kannada]] language films only
* [[Genie Awards]] for Canadian film
* [[Gemini Awards]] for Canadian television
* [[Golden Globe Award]]s for American film and television
* [[Golden Raspberry Awards]] Worst in American film
* [[Goya Awards]] for Spanish film
* [[IIFA Awards]] International Indian Film Academy Awards, for [[Bollywood]]
* [[IFTA]]'s for the Irish Film and Television
* [[Indian National Film Awards]] for the [[Indian cinema]]
* [[Kerala State Film Awards]] in India for the [[Malayalam cinema]]
* [[Laurence Olivier Awards]] for the theatre
* [[Lŭ Style Awards]] for Pakistan film
* Piala Citra (Citra Award) for Indonesian film
* [[San Sebastián International Film Festival]] Spanish film festival Celebrated in San Sebastián
* [[Sarah Siddons Award]] for female actress in Chicago Theatre
* [[Screen Actors Guild]] Awards for American actors in film and television
* [[Tony Award]]s for the theatre (specifically, [[Broadway theatre]])
* [[Volpi Cup]]s at the [[Venice Film Festival]]
==See also==
{{div col|cols=3}}
*[[Bit part]]
*[[Body double]]
*[[Cameo appearance]]
*[[Character actor]]
*[[Child actor]]
*[[Drama school]]
*[[Dramatis personæ]]
*[[Extra (actor)]]
*[[Improvisational theatre]]
*[[Leading actor]]
*[[Lists of actors]]
*[[Master of Fine Arts]]
*[[Matinee idol]]
*[[Method acting]]
*[[Meisner technique]]
*[[Movie star]]
*[[Pornographic actor]]
*[[Practical Aesthetics]]
*[[Presentational acting and Representational acting]]
*[[Q Score]]
*[[Stunt work]]
*[[Supporting actor]]
*[[Voice Actor]]
{{div col end}}
== References ==
=== Sources ===
* Csapo, Eric, and William J. Slater. 1994. ''The Context of Ancient Drama.'' Ann Arbor: The U of Michigan P. ISBN 0-472-08275-2.
* Elam, Keir. 1980. ''The [[Semiotics]] of Theatre and Drama''. New Accents Ser. London and New York: Methuen. ISBN 0-416-72060-9.
* Weimann, Robert. 1978. ''Shakespeare and the Popular Tradition in the Theater: Studies in the Social Dimension of Dramatic Form and Function.'' Ed. Robert Schwartz. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-3506-2.
=== Further reading ===
* ''An Actor's Work'' by [[Constantin Stanislavski]]
* ''A Dream of Passion: The Development of the Method'' by [[Lee Strasberg]] (Plume Books, ISBN 0-452-26198-8, 1990)
* ''Sanford Meisner on Acting'' by [[Sanford Meisner]] (Vintage, ISBN 0-394-75059-4, 1987)
* ''Letters to a Young Actor'' by [[Robert Brustein]] (Basic Books, ISBN 0-465-00806-2, 2005).
* ''The Empty Space'' by [[Peter Brook]]
* ''The Technique of Acting'' by [[Stella Adler]]
== External links ==
* [http://www.actorsequity.org/ Actors' Equity Association (AEA)]: a union representing U. S. theatre actors and stage managers.
* [http://www.aftra.org/ American Federation of Television and Radio Artists (AFTRA)]: a union representing U. S. television and radio actors and broadcasters (on-air journalists, etc.).
* [http://www.equity.org.uk/ British Actors' Equity]: a trade union representing UK artists, including actors, singers, dancers, choreographers, stage managers, theatre directors and designers, variety and circus artists, television and radio presenters, walk-on and supporting artists, stunt performers and directors and theatre fight directors.
* [http://www.alliance.org.au Media Entertainment & Arts Alliance]: an Australian/New Zealand trade union representing everyone in the media, entertainment, sports, and arts industries.
* [http://www.sag.org/ Screen Actors Guild (SAG)]: a union representing U. S. film and TV actors.
[[Category:Actors| ]]