A '''short story''' is a form of short [[fictional]] [[narrative]] [[prose]]. Short stories tend to be more
concise and to the point than longer works of fiction, such as [[novella]]s (in the modern sense of this term) and [[novel]]s.
Short stories have their origins in [[Storytelling#Oral traditions|oral story-telling]] traditions and the prose [[anecdote]], a swiftly-sketched situation that comes rapidly to its point. With the rise of the comparatively [[realism (arts)|realistic]] novel, the short story evolved as a miniature, with some of its first perfectly independent examples in the tales of [[E.T.A. Hoffmann]] and [[Anton Chekhov]].
Many authors today release compilations of their short stories in short story collections.
== تاريخ ==
=== زېږېدنه ===
Short stories date back to the (oral) story-telling traditions which produced such notable tales as [[Homer]]'s the ''[[Iliad]]'' and the ''[[Odyssey]]''. Tales such as these were told in a [[rhyming]], [[poetic]] format, with the rhymes acting as a [[mnemonic]] tool for people to remember the story. Short sections of these tales focused on individual narratives that could be told at one sitting. The overall arch of the story would only emerge through the telling of multiple sections of the tale.
[[Fables]], which tend to be [[folk tale]]s with an explicitly expressed moral, were said by the Greek historian [[Herodotus]] to have been invented by a Greek slave named [[Aesop]] in the [[6th century BCE]] (although other times and nationalities are also given for Aesop). These ancient fables are known today as [[Aesop's Fables]].
The other ancient form of short story, anecdotes, were popular during the years of the [[Roman Empire]]. Anecdotes functioned as a sort of [[parable]], a brief realistic narration that embodies a point. Many of the surviving Roman anecdotes were later collected in the [[Gesta Romanorum]] in the [[13th century|13th]] or [[14th century]]. Anecdotes remained popular in Europe well into the [[18th century]], when the fictional anecdotal letters of Sir Roger de Coverley were published.
In Europe, the oral story-telling tradition began to develop into written stories in the early 14th century, most notably with [[Geoffrey Chaucer]]'s ''[[Canterbury Tales]]'' and [[Giovanni Boccaccio]]'s ''[[Decameron]]''. Both of these books are composed of individual short stories (which range from farce or humorous anecdotes to well-crafted literary fictions) set within a larger narrative story (a [[frame story]]), although the frame tale device was not adopted by all writers. At the end of the [[16th century]], some of the most popular short stories in Europe were the darkly tragic "novella" of [[Matteo Bandello]] (especially in their French translation). During the Renaissance, the term novella was used when referring to short stories.
The mid [[17th century]] in France saw the development of a refined short novel, the "nouvelle", by such authors as [[Madame de Lafayette]]. In the 1690s, traditional [[fairy tale]]s began to be published (one of the most famous collections was by [[Charles Perrault]]). The appearance of [[Antoine Galland]]'s first modern translation of the ''[[Thousand and One Nights]]'' (or ''Arabian Nights'') (from 1704; another translation appeared in 1710–12) would have an enormous influence on the [[18th century]] European short stories of [[Voltaire]], [[Diderot]] and others.
=== د نوي پېر لنډې کيسې ===
Modern short stories emerged as their own [[genre]] in the early [[19th century]]. Early examples of short story and short story collections include the [[Brothers Grimm]] ''Fairy Tales'' (1824–1826), [[Nikolai Gogol]]'s ''[[Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka]]'' (1831-1832), [[Edgar Allan Poe]]'s ''The Gold Bug'' (1843),<ref>''The Gold Bug'' by Edgar Allan Poe (New York, NY : Learning Corp. of America, 1979) [http://www.worldcatlibraries.org/oclc/14710019&referer=brief_results OCLC: 14710019]</ref> about a cryptographic treasure map<ref>''The Gold Bug: Treasure Chart, Edgar A. Poe'' by E. Lee Spence, (Sullivan's Island, SC: E. Lee Spence, 1981)</ref> and [[Nathaniel Hawthorne]]'s ''Twice Told Tales'' (1842). In the later part of the 19th century, the growth of print magazines and journals created a strong market demand for short fiction between 3,000 and 15,000 words in length. Among the famous short stories to come out of this time period was "Ward No. 6" by [[Anton Chekhov]].
In the first half of the [[20th century]], a number of high-profile magazines, such as ''The [[Atlantic Monthly]]'', ''[[Scribner's Magazine|Scribner's]]'', and ''[[The Saturday Evening Post]]'', all published short stories in each issue. The demand for quality short stories was so great, and the money paid for them so high, that [[F. Scott Fitzgerald]] repeatedly turned to short story writing to pay off his numerous debts.
The demand for short stories by print magazines hit its peak in the middle of the 20th century, when in 1952 ''[[Life (magazine)|Life]]'' magazine published Ernest Hemingway's long short story (or novella) ''[[The Old Man and the Sea]]''. The issue containing this story sold 5,300,000 copies in only two days.
Since then, the number of commercial magazines that publish short stories has declined, even though several well-known magazines like ''[[The New Yorker]]'' continue to feature them. [[Literary magazine]]s also provide a showcase for short stories. In addition, short stories have recently found a new life online, where they can be found in online magazines, in collections organized by author or theme, and on [[blog]]s.
== د لنډې کيسې توکي او ځانګړنې ==
Short stories tend to be less complex than novels. Usually, a short story will focus on only one incident, has a single plot, a single setting, a limited number of characters, and covers a short period of time.
In longer forms of fiction, stories tend to contain certain core elements of [[dramatic structure]]: exposition (the introduction of setting, situation and main characters); complication (the event of the story that introduces the conflict); rising action, crisis (the decisive moment for the protagonist and their commitment to a course of action); climax (the point of highest interest in terms of the conflict and the point of the story with the most action); resolution (the point of the story when the conflict is resolved); and moral.
Because of their short length, short stories may or may not follow this pattern. For example, modern short stories only occasionally have an exposition. More typical, though, is an abrupt beginning, with the story starting in the middle of the action. As with longer stories, plots of short stories also have a climax, crisis, or turning-point. However, the endings of many short stories are abrupt and open and may or may not have a moral or practical lesson.
Of course, as with any [[art]] form, the exact characteristics of a short story will vary by [[author]].
Determining what exactly separates a short story from longer fictional formats is problematic. A classic definition of a short story is that one should be able to read it in one sitting, a point most notably made in [[Edgar Allan Poe]]'s [[essay]] "[[The Philosophy of Composition]]" (1846). Other definitions place the maximum word length at 7,500 words. In contemporary usage, the term short story most often refers to a work of fiction no longer than 20,000 words and no shorter than 1,000.
== د يو څو مشهورو لنډو کيسو ټاکنه ==
*"[[The Last Question]]" by [[Isaac Asimov]] ([http://infohost.nmt.edu/~mlindsey/asimov/question.htm Online Text])
* "[[An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge]]" by [[Ambrose Bierce]] ([http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext95/owlcr11.txt online text])
* "Yours Truly, Jack the Ripper" by [[Robert Bloch]]
* "[[A Sound of Thunder]]" by [[Ray Bradbury]]
* "Cathedral" by [[Raymond Carver]]
* "[[The Story of an Hour]]" by [[Kate Chopin]] ([http://www.pbs.org/katechopin/library/storyofanhour.html online text])
* "[[The Most Dangerous Game]]" by [[Richard Connell]] ([http://eserver.org/fiction/the_most_dangerous_game.html online text])
* "[[A Rose for Emily]]" by [[William Faulkner]]
* "[[The Overcoat]]" by [[Nikolai Gogol]] ([http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/g/gogol/nikolai/g61cl/ online text] — translated from Russian)
* "[[Young Goodman Brown]]" by [[Nathaniel Hawthorne]] ([http://www.amlit.com/twentyss/chap1.html online text])
* "[[The Killers (short story)|The Killers]]" by [[Ernest Hemingway]]
* "[[The Gift of the Magi]]" by [[O. Henry]] ([http://www.auburn.edu/~vestmon/Gift_of_the_Magi.html online text])
* "[[The Legend of Sleepy Hollow]]" by [[Washington Irving]]
* "[[The Lottery]]" by [[Shirley Jackson]] ([http://jackson.classicauthors.net/lottery/ online text])
* "[[The Monkey's Paw]]" by [[W.W. Jacobs]]
* "[[The Dead (short story)|The Dead]]" by [[James Joyce]] ([http://mockingbird.creighton.edu/english/micsun/IrishResources/dead.htm online text])
* "[[In the Penal Colony]]" by [[Franz Kafka]] ([http://www.mala.bc.ca/~johnstoi/kafka/inthepenalcolony.htm online text] — translated from German)
* "[[The Call of Cthulhu]]" by [[H.P. Lovecraft]]
* "[[The Fly (short story)]]" by [[Katherine Mansfield]]
* "[[Bartleby, the Scrivener]]" by [[Herman Melville]] ([http://www.gutenberg.org/files/11231/11231.txt online text])
* "[[A Good Man Is Hard to Find]]" by [[Flannery O'Connor]] ([http://xroads.virginia.edu/~DRBR/goodman.html online text])
*"[[The Doctor's Son]]" by [[John O'Hara]]
* "[[The Tell-Tale Heart]]" by [[Edgar Allan Poe]] ([http://www.literature.org/authors/poe-edgar-allan/tell-tale-heart.html online text])
* "[[The Vampyre]]" by [[John Polidori]] ([http://shortstory.byethost6.com/polidorivampyre.html online text])
* "The Mortal Immortal" by [[Mary Shelley]] ([http://www.sff.net/people/DoyleMacdonald/l_mortal.htm online text])
* "[[The Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner]]" by [[Alan Sillitoe]]
* "The Spinoza of Market Street" by [[Isaac Bashevis Singer]] ([http://shortstory.byethost6.com/singerspinoza.html online text])
*"[[The Secret Life of Walter Mitty]]" by [[James Thurber]] ([http://www.all-story.com/issues.cgi?action=show_story&story_id=100 Online Text])
* "[[The Death of Ivan Ilych]]" by [[Leo Tolstoy]] ([http://shortstory.byethost6.com/tolstoydeath.html online text])
* "[[A Martian Odyssey]]" by [[Stanley G. Weinbaum]].
* "[[The Red Room (Wells)|The Red Room]]" by [[H.G. Wells]] ([http://www.twilightharbor.com/moonmistress/stories/RedRoom.html Online Text])