د "ژونکيميا" د بڼو تر مېنځ توپير

۲۵٬۰۹۵ ټکی لري شوه ،  ۹ کاله مخکې
د سمون لنډيز پرته
و (robot Adding: pnb:بائیو کیمسٹری; cosmetic changes)
{{غځول}}
[[انځور:biochemistry.gif|thumb|کيڼ|[[فرېدرېخ وهلر|وهلر]] د [[يوريا]] د جوړښت کتنه کوي.]]
'''ژونکيميا''' په ژونديو اورګانيزمونو کې د کيميايي کړنو د شننو او څېړنو زده کړې ته وايي.<ref>[http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/biochemistry ډېکشنري.کام]</ref> همدا نوم د ژوند او کيميا د وييونو يو تړنګنوم دی. ژونکيميا ته په انګرېزي ژبه بايوکېمېسټري يا "biochemistry" وايي. د انګريزي ژبې همدا نوم خپل آر له يواني لغت βιοχημεία biochēmeia, چې مانا يې ده "د ژوندانه کيميا" څخه اخيستې.<ref>[http://www.kypros.org/cgi-bin/lexicon پرليکه يوناني ژباړوکی]</ref> د پوهې همدا ډګر د سلولي توکيو د جوړښت او کړنو سره سروکار لري، د ساري په توګه [[پروټين]]ونه، کاربوهايډرېټ، هشمي توکي، [[هستوي اسيد]]ونه او ډېر نور ژونماليکيولونه. د کيميايي ژونپوهنې موخه دا ده چې د ژونکيميا په ډګر کې راپورته شويو پوښتنو ته د هغه پرمختللي اوزارونو په مرسته چې په کيميايي جوړښتونو کې دي، ځواب ووايي.
د سلولي ميټابوليزم او اېنډوکراين غونډال ژونکيميا په پراخه کچه سپړل شوې. د ژونکيميا په نورو برخو کې د ژنيټيک کوډونو ([[ډي ان اې]]، [[آر ان اې]])، [[د پروټينو جوړښت]]، [[سل مېمبرېن]] لېږد, او د لېږدنده سېګنالونو زده کړې شاملې دي.
 
This article only discusses terrestrial biochemistry ([[carbon]]- and [[water]]-based), as all the life forms we know are on [[Earth]]. Since life forms alive today are hypothesized by most to have descended from the same [[common descent|common ancestor]], they have similar biochemistries, even for matters that seem to be essentially arbitrary, such as [[chirality (chemistry)|handedness]] of various biomolecules. It is unknown whether [[alternative biochemistry|alternative biochemistries]] are possible or practical.
 
== تاريخ ==
[[دوتنه:Friedrich woehler.jpg|thumb|left|150px|Friedrich Wöhler]]
Originally, it was generally believed that life was not subject to the laws of science the way non-life was. It was thought that only living beings could produce the molecules of life (from other, previously existing biomolecules). Then, in [[1828]], [[Friedrich Wöhler]] published a paper on the synthesis of [[urea]], proving that [[organic chemistry|organic]] compounds can be created artificially.<ref>{{cite journal | author = Wöhler, F. | title = Ueber künstliche Bildung des Harnstoffs. | journal = Ann. Phys. Chem. | year=1828 | volume=12 | pages=253-256}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal | title = Friedrich Wöhler (1800–1882), on the Bicentennial of His Birth | author = Kauffman, G. B. and Chooljian, S.H. | journal = The Chemical Educator | volume = 6 | issue = 2 | pages = 121-133 | year = 2001 | doi = 10.1007/s00897010444a}}</ref>
 
The dawn of biochemistry may have been the discovery of the first enzyme, [[diastase]] (today called [[amylase]]), in [[1833]] by [[Anselme Payen]]. [[Eduard Buchner]] contributed the first demonstration of a complex biochemical process outside of a cell in 1896: [[Ethanol fermentation|alcoholic fermentation]] in cell extracts of yeast. Although the term “biochemistry” seems to have been first used in 1882, it is generally accepted that the formal coinage of biochemistry occurred in [[1903]] by [[Carl Neuberg]], a German [[chemist]]. Previously, this area would have been referred to as [[physiological chemistry]]. Since then, biochemistry has advanced, especially since the mid-[[20th century]], with the development of new techniques such as [[chromatography]], [[X-ray diffraction]], [[protein nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy|NMR spectroscopy]], [[radioisotopic labeling]], [[electron microscope|electron microscopy]] and [[molecular dynamics]] simulations. These techniques allowed for the discovery and detailed analysis of many molecules and [[metabolic pathway]]s of the [[cell (biology)|cell]], such as [[glycolysis]] and the [[Krebs cycle]] (citric acid cycle).
 
Today, the findings of biochemistry are used in many areas, from genetics to [[molecular biology]] and from [[agriculture]] to [[medicine]].
 
== کاربوهايډرېټ ==
{{main|Carbohydrate}}
The function of [[carbohydrates]] includes energy storage and providing structure. [[Sugar]]s are carbohydrates, but not all carbohydrates are sugars. There are more carbohydrates on Earth than any other known type of biomolecule.
 
=== مونوسکرايډونه ===
[[دوتنه:Beta-D-Glucose.svg|thumb|200px|[[Glucose]]]]
The simplest type of carbohydrate is a [[monosaccharide]], which among other properties contains carbon, [[hydrogen]], and [[oxygen]], mostly in a ratio of 1:2:1 (generalized formula C<sub>''n''</sub>H<sub>2''n''</sub>O<sub>''n''</sub>, where ''n'' is at least 3). [[Glucose]], one of the most important carbohydrates, is an example of a monosaccharide. So is [[fructose]], the sugar that gives [[fruit]]s their sweet taste. Some carbohydrates (especially after [[condensation reaction|condensation]] to oligo- and polysaccharides) contain less carbon relative to H and O, which still are present in 2:1 (H:O) ratio. Monosaccharides can be grouped into [[aldoses]] (having an [[aldehyde]] group at the end of the chain, e. g. glucose) and [[ketoses]] (having a [[keto]] group in their chain; e. g. fructose). Both aldoses and ketoses occur in an [[Chemical equilibrium|equilibrium]] between the open-chain forms and (starting with chain lengths of C4) cyclic forms. These are generated by bond formation between one of the hydroxyl groups of the sugar chain with the carbon of the aldehyde or keto group to form a [[hemiacetal]] bond. This leads to saturated five-membered (in furanoses) or six-membered (in pyranoses) [[heterocyclic]] rings containing one O as heteroatom.
 
=== ډايسکرايډونه ===
[[دوتنه:Saccharose.svg|thumb|[[Sucrose]]: ordinary table sugar and probably the most familiar carbohydrate.]]
Two monosaccharides can be joined together using [[dehydration synthesis]], in which a hydrogen atom is removed from the end of one molecule and a [[hydroxyl]] group (—OH) is removed from the other; the remaining residues are then attached at the sites from which the atoms were removed. The H—OH or H<sub>2</sub>O is then released as a molecule of [[water]], hence the term ''dehydration''. The new molecule, consisting of two monosaccharides, is called a ''[[disaccharide]]'' and is conjoined together by a glycosidic or [[ether bond]]. The reverse reaction can also occur, using a molecule of water to split up a disaccharide and break the glycosidic bond; this is termed ''[[hydrolysis]]''. The most well-known disaccharide is [[sucrose]], ordinary [[sugar]] (in scientific contexts, called ''table sugar'' or ''[[cane sugar]]'' to differentiate it from other sugars). Sucrose consists of a glucose molecule and a fructose molecule joined together. Another important disaccharide is [[lactose]], consisting of a glucose molecule and a [[galactose]] molecule. As most humans age, the production of [[lactase]], the enzyme that hydrolyzes lactose back into glucose and galactose, typically decreases. This results in [[lactase deficiency]], also called ''lactose intolerance''.
 
Sugar polymers are characterised by having reducing or non-reducing ends. A [[reducing end]] of a carbohydrate is a carbon atom which can be in equilibrium with the open-chain [[aldehyde]] or keto form. If the joining of monomers takes place at such a carbon atom, the free hydroxy group of the [[pyranose]] or [[furanose]] form is exchanged with an OH-side chain of another sugar, yielding a full [[acetal]]. This prevents opening of the chain to the aldehyde or keto form and renders the modified residue non-reducing. Lactose contains a reducing end at its glucose moiety, whereas the galactose moiety form a full acetal with the C4-OH group of glucose. [[Saccharose]] does not have a reducing end because of full acetal formation between the aldehyde carbon of glucose (C1) and the keto carbon of fructose (C2).
 
=== Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides ===
[[دوتنه:Cellulose-2D-skeletal.png|thumb|[[Cellulose]] as polymer of β-<small>D</small>-glucose]]
When a few (around three to six) monosaccharides are joined together, it is called an ''[[oligosaccharide]]'' (''oligo-'' meaning "few"). These molecules tend to be used as markers and signals, as well as having some other uses.
 
Many monosaccharides joined together make a [[polysaccharide]]. They can be joined together in one long linear chain, or they may be branched. Two of the most common polysaccharides are [[cellulose]] and [[glycogen]], both consisting of repeating [[glucose]] [[monomer]]s.
* ''Cellulose'' is made by [[plant]]s and is an important structural component of their [[cell wall]]s. [[Human]]s can neither manufacture nor digest it.
* ''Glycogen'', on the other hand, is an [[animal]] carbohydrate; humans and other animals use it as a form of energy storage.
 
=== Use of carbohydrates as an energy source ===
:''See also [[carbohydrate metabolism]]''
Glucose is the major energy source in most life forms. For instance, polysaccharides are broken down into their monomers ([[glycogen phosphorylase]] removes glucose residues from glycogen). Disaccharides like lactose or [[sucrose]] are cleaved into their two component monosaccharides.
 
==== ګلايکوليسېز (anaerobic) ====
Glucose is mainly metabolized by a very important and ancient ten-step pathway called [[glycolysis]], the net result of which is to break down one molecule of glucose into two molecules of [[pyruvate]]; this also produces a net two molecules of [[Adenosine triphosphate|ATP]], the energy currency of cells, along with two reducing equivalents in the form of converting [[Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide|NAD<sup>+</sup>]] to NADH. This does not require oxygen; if no oxygen is available (or the cell cannot use oxygen), the NAD is restored by converting the pyruvate to [[lactic acid|lactate (lactic acid)]] (e. g. in humans) or to [[ethanol]] plus carbon dioxide (e. g. in [[yeast]]). Other monosaccharides like galactose and fructose can be converted into intermediates of the glycolytic pathway.
 
==== Aerobic ====
In [[aerobic glycolysis|aerobic]] cells with sufficient oxygen, like most human cells, the pyruvate is further metabolized. It is irreversibly converted to [[acetyl-CoA]], giving off one carbon atom as the waste product [[carbon dioxide]], generating another reducing equivalent as [[NADH]]. The two molecules acetyl-CoA (from one molecule of glucose) then enter the [[citric acid cycle]], producing two more molecules of ATP, six more [[NADH]] molecules and two reduced (ubi)quinones (via [[FADH2|FADH<sub>2</sub>]] as enzyme-bound cofactor), and releasing the remaining carbon atoms as carbon dioxide. The produced NADH and quinol molecules then feed into the enzyme complexes of the respiratory chain, an [[electron transport system]] transferring the electrons ultimately to [[oxygen]] and conserving the released energy in the form of a proton gradient over a membrane (inner mitochondrial membrane in eukaryotes). Thereby, oxygen is reduced to water and the original electron acceptors NAD<sup>+</sup> and quinone are regenerated. This is why humans breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide. The energy released from transferring the electrons from high-energy states in NADH and quinol is conserved first as proton gradient and converted to ATP via ATP synthase. This generates an additional ''28'' molecules of ATP (24 from the 8 NADH + 4 from the 2 quinols), totaling to 32 molecules of ATP conserved per degraded glucose (two from glycolysis + two from the citrate cycle). It is clear that using oxygen to completely oxidize glucose provides an organism with far more energy than any oxygen-independent metabolic feature, and this is thought to be the reason why complex life appeared only after Earth's atmosphere accumulated large amounts of oxygen.
 
==== ګلوکونيوجنېسېز ====
{{main|Gluconeogenesis}}
In [[vertebrate]]s, vigorously contracting [[skeletal muscle]]s (during weightlifting or sprinting, for example) do not receive enough oxygen to meet the energy demand, and so they shift to [[Fermentation (biochemistry)|anaerobic metabolism]], converting glucose to lactate. The [[liver]] regenerates the glucose, using a process called [[gluconeogenesis]]. This process is not quite the opposite of glycolysis, and actually requires three times the amount of energy gained from glycolysis (six molecules of ATP are used, compared to the two gained in glycolysis). Analogous to the above reactions, the glucose produced can then undergo glycolysis in tissues that need energy, be stored as glycogen (or starch in plants), or be converted to other monosaccharides or joined into di- or oligosaccharides.
 
== پروټينونه ==
{{main|Protein}}
[[دوتنه:1GZX Haemoglobin.png|thumb|right|150px|A schematic of [[hemoglobin]]. The red and blue ribbons represent the protein [[globin]]; the green structures are the [[heme]] groups.]]
Like carbohydrates, some proteins perform largely structural roles. For instance, movements of the proteins [[actin]] and [[myosin]] ultimately are responsible for the contraction of skeletal muscle. One property many proteins have is that they specifically bind to a certain molecule or class of molecules—they may be ''extremely'' selective in what they bind. [[Antibody|Antibodies]] are an example of proteins that attach to one specific type of molecule. In fact, the [[enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay]] (ELISA), which uses antibodies, is currently one of the most sensitive tests modern medicine uses to detect various biomolecules. Probably the most important proteins, however, are the [[enzyme]]s. These amazing molecules recognize specific reactant molecules called ''[[substrate (biochemistry)|substrates]]''; they then [[catalyze]] the reaction between them. By lowering the [[activation energy]], the enzyme speeds up that reaction by a rate of 10<sup>11</sup> or more: a reaction that would normally take over 3,000 years to complete spontaneously might take less than a second with an enzyme. The enzyme itself is not used up in the process, and is free to catalyze the same reaction with a new set of substrates. Using various modifiers, the activity of the enzyme can be regulated, enabling control of the biochemistry of the cell as a whole.
 
In essence, proteins are chains of [[amino acid]]s. An amino acid consists of a carbon atom bound to four groups. One is an [[amino]] group, —NH<sub>2</sub>, and one is a [[carboxylic acid]] group, —COOH (although these exist as —NH<sub>3</sub><sup>+</sup> and —COO<sup>−</sup> under physiologic conditions). The third is a simple [[hydrogen]] atom. The fourth is commonly denoted "—R" and is different for each amino acid. There are twenty standard amino acids. Some of these have functions by themselves or in a modified form; for instance, glutamate functions as an important [[neurotransmitter]].
 
[[دوتنه:Aminosyrer_1.png|thumb|right|350px|Generic amino acids (1) in neutral form, (2) as they exist physiologically, and (3) joined together as a dipeptide.]]
Amino acids can be joined together via a [[peptide bond]]. In this dehydration synthesis, a water molecule is removed and the peptide bond connects the nitrogen of one amino acid's amino group to the carbon of the other's carboxylic acid group. The resulting molecule is called a ''[[dipeptide]]'', and short stretches of amino acids (usually, fewer than around thirty) are called ''[[peptide]]s'' or polypeptides. Longer stretches merit the title ''proteins''. As an example, the important blood [[blood plasma|serum]] protein [[human serum albumin|albumin]] contains 585 amino acid residues.
 
The structure of proteins is traditionally described in a hierarchy of four levels. The [[primary structure]] of a protein simply consists of its linear sequence of amino acids; for instance, "alanine-glycine-tryptophan-serine-glutamate-asparagine-glycine-lysine-…". [[Secondary structure]] is concerned with local morphology. Some combinations of amino acids will tend to curl up in a coil called an [[alpha helix|α-helix]] or into a sheet called a [[Beta sheet|β-sheet]]; some α-helixes can be seen in the hemoglobin schematic above. [[Tertiary structure]] is the entire three-dimensional shape of the protein. This shape is determined by the sequence of amino acids. In fact, a single change can change the entire structure. The β chain of hemoglobin contains 146 amino acid residues; substitution of the [[glutamate]] residue at position 6 with a [[valine]] residue changes the behavior of hemoglobin so much that it results in [[sickle-cell disease]]. Finally [[quaternary structure]] is concerned with the structure of a protein with multiple peptide subunits, like hemoglobin with its four subunits. Not all proteins have more than one subunit.
 
Ingested proteins are usually broken up into single amino acids or dipeptides in the [[small intestine]], and then absorbed. They can then be joined together to make new proteins. Intermediate products of glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the [[pentose phosphate pathway]] can be used to make all twenty amino acids, and most bacteria and plants possess all the necessary enzymes to synthesize them. Humans and other mammals, however, can only synthesize half of them. They cannot synthesize [[isoleucine]], [[leucine]], [[lysine]], [[methionine]], [[phenylalanine]], [[threonine]], [[tryptophan]], and [[valine]]. These are the [[essential amino acid]]s, since it is essential to ingest them. Mammals do possess the enzymes to synthesize [[alanine]], [[asparagine]], [[aspartate]], [[cysteine]], [[glutamate]], [[glutamine]], [[glycine]], [[proline]], [[serine]], and [[tyrosine]], the nonessential amino acids. While they can synthesize [[arginine]] and [[histidine]], they cannot produce it in sufficient amounts for young, growing animals, and so these are often considered essential amino acids.
 
If the amino group is removed from an amino acid, it leaves behind a carbon skeleton called an α-[[keto acid]]. Enzymes called [[transaminase]]s can easily transfer the amino group from one amino acid (making it an α-keto acid) to another α-keto acid (making it an amino acid). This is important in the biosynthesis of amino acids, as for many of the pathways, intermediates from other biochemical pathways are converted to the α-keto acid skeleton, and then an amino group is added, often via [[transamination]]. The amino acids may then be linked together to make a protein.
 
A similar process is used to break down proteins. It is first hydrolyzed into its component amino acids. Free [[ammonia]] (NH<sub>3</sub>), existing as the [[ammonium]] ion (NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>) in blood, is toxic to life forms. A suitable method for excreting it must therefore exist. Different strategies have evolved in different animals, depending on the animals' needs. [[Unicellular]] organisms, of course, simply release the ammonia into the environment. Similarly, [[osteichthyes|bony fish]] can release the ammonia into the water where it is quickly diluted. In general, mammals convert the ammonia into urea, via the [[urea cycle]].
 
== حشميات ==
{{main|Lipid}}
 
The term lipid comprises a diverse range of [[molecules]] and to some extent is a catchall for relatively water-insoluble or [[nonpolar]] compounds of biological origin, including [[wax]]es, [[fatty acid]]s, fatty-acid derived [[phospholipid]]s, [[sphingolipid]]s, [[glycolipid]]s and [[terpenoid]]s (eg. [[retinoid]]s and [[steroid]]s). Some lipids are linear [[aliphatic]] molecules, while others have ring structures. Some are [[aromatic]], while others are not. Some are flexible, while others are rigid.
 
Most lipids have some [[polar molecule|polar]] character in addition to being largely nonpolar. Generally, the bulk of their structure is nonpolar or [[hydrophobic]] ("water-fearing"), meaning that it does not interact well with polar solvents like water. Another part of their structure is polar or [[hydrophilic]] ("water-loving") and will tend to associate with polar solvents like water. This makes them [[amphiphilic]] molecules (having both hydrophobic and hydrophilic portions). In the case of [[cholesterol]], the polar group is a mere -OH ([[hydroxyl]] or alcohol). In the case of phospholipids, the polar groups are considerably larger and more polar, as described below.
 
Lipids are an integral part of our daily diet. Most [[oil]]s and [[milk products]] that we use for cooking and eating like [[butter]], [[cheese]], [[ghee]] etc, are comprised of [[fat]]s. [[Vegetable oil]]s are rich in various [[polyunsaturated fatty acid]]s (PUFA). Lipid-containing foods undergo digestion within the body and are broken into fatty acids and [[glycerol]], which are the final degradation products of fats and lipids.
 
== نيوکليک اسيدونه ==
{{main|Nucleic acid}}
 
A nucleic acid is a complex, high-molecular-weight biochemical [[macromolecule]] composed of nucleotide chains that convey [[genetic information]]. The most common nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid ([[RNA]]). Nucleic acids are found in all living cells and viruses.
 
Nucleic acid, so called because of its prevalence in cellular [[cell nucleus|nuclei]], is the generic name of the family of [[biopolymer]]s. The monomers are called [[nucleotide]]s, and each consists of three components: a nitrogenous heterocyclic [[base (chemistry)|base]] (either a [[purine]] or a [[pyrimidine]]), a [[pentose]] [[sugar]], and a [[phosphate]] group. Different nucleic acid types differ in the specific sugar found in their chain (e.g. DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid contains 2-[[deoxyribose]]s). Also, the nitrogenous bases possible in the two nucleic acids are different: [[adenine]], [[cytosine]], and [[guanine]] occur in both RNA and DNA, while [[thymine]] occurs only in DNA and [[uracil]] occurs in RNA.
 
== Relationship to other "molecular-scale" biological sciences ==
[[دوتنه:Schematic relationship between biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology.svg|thumb|250px|right|''Schematic relationship between biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology'']]
Researchers in biochemistry use specific techniques native to biochemistry, but increasingly combine these with techniques and ideas from [[genetics]], [[molecular biology]] and [[biophysics]]. There has never been a hard-line between these disciplines in terms of content and technique, but members of each discipline have in the past been very territorial; today the terms ''molecular biology'' and ''biochemistry'' are nearly interchangeable. The following figure is a schematic that depicts one possible view of the relationship between the fields:
* ''Biochemistry'' is the study of the chemical substances and vital processes occurring in living [[organism]]s.
* ''Genetics'' is the study of the effect of genetic differences on organisms. Often this can be inferred by the absence of a normal component (e.g. one [[gene]]). The study of "[[mutant]]s" – organisms which lack one or more functional components with respect to the so-called "[[wild type]]" or normal [[phenotype]]. [[Genetic interactions]] ([[epistasis]]) can often confound simple interpretations of such "knock-out" studies.
* ''Molecular biology'' is the study of molecular underpinnings of the process of replication, transcription and translation of the [[genetic material]]. The [[central dogma of molecular biology]] where genetic material is transcribed into RNA and then translated into protein, despite being an oversimplified picture of molecular biology, still provides a good starting point for understanding the field. This picture, however, is undergoing revision in light of emerging novel roles for [[RNA]].
* ''Chemical Biology'' seeks to develop new tools based on [[small molecule]]s that allow minimal perturbation of biological systems while providing detailed information about their function. Further, chemical biology employs biological systems to create non-natural hybrids between biomolecules and synthetic devices (for example emptied viral capsids that can deliver gene therapy or drug molecules).
 
== سرچينې ==
{{citations missing|article|date=July 2007}}
<references/>
 
== نورې لوستنې ==
* {{cite book | last = Hunter | first = Graeme K. | year = 2000 | title = Vital Forces: The Discovery of the Molecular Basis of Life | publisher = Academic Press | location = San Diego | id = ISBN 0-12-361810-X}}
* [http://www.pnas.org/ Proceedings of National academy of Science of the United States of America], ISSN: 1091-6490 (electronic)
 
== دا هم وګورۍ ==
=== لړليکونه ===
<div style="-moz-column-count; column-count;">
* [[د بنسټيزې ژواکي کيميا د سرليکونو لړليک]]
* [[د ژونکيميا د سرليکونو لړليک]]
* [[د ژونکيمياپوهانو لړليک]]
* [[د ژونماليکيولونو لړليک]]
* [[List of geneticists & biochemists]]
* [[List of important publications in biology#Biochemistry|Important publications in biochemistry (biology)]]
* [[List of important publications in chemistry#Biochemistry|Important publications in biochemistry (chemistry)]]
</div>
 
=== اړونده سرليکونه ===
<div style="-moz-column-count; column-count;">
* [[Alternative biochemistry]]
* [[Biological psychiatry]]
* [[Chemical ecology]]
* [[Chemical imbalance theory]]
* [[Computational biomodeling]]
* [[Molecular biology]]
* [[Molecular medicine]]
* [[Stoichiometry]]
</div>
 
== باندنۍ تړنې ==
{{wikibooks}}
{{WVD}}
* [http://www.biochemweb.org/ The Virtual Library of Biochemistry and Cell Biology]
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?call=bv.View..ShowTOC&rid=stryer.TOC&depth=2 Biochemistry, 5th ed.] Full text of Berg, Tymoczko, and Stryer, courtesy of [[National Center for Biotechnology Information|NCBI]].
* [http://www.web.virginia.edu/Heidi/home.htm Biochemistry, 2nd ed.] Full text of Garrett and Grisham.
* [http://www.biotecnologia.co.cr/ Costa Rican Biotechnology Society]
* [http://www.biochem.mpg.de/valet/cellbio.html Cell Biochemistry]
* [http://acsinfo.acs.org/journals/bichaw/ Biochemistry (the scientific jounal)].
 
{{Biology-footer}}
{{BranchesofChemistry}}
{{Biochemical families}}
 
[[وېشنيزه:ژونکيميا| ]]