د "ټولنپوهنه" د بڼو تر مېنځ توپير

۹۰ بايټونه ورگډ شول ،  ۱۰ کاله مخکې
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'''ټولنپوهنه''' د دوو ويونو، ټولنې او پوهنې تړنګنوم دی چې په انګريزي ژبه ''socialogy'' يا سوسيالوژي، په [[پارسي ژبه]] ورته ''جامعه شناسي'' او په [[عربي ژبه]] ورته ''علم الاجتماع'' وايي. ټولنپوهنه د اکادميکو زده کړو يو ډګر دی چې د ټولنې، او په [[ټولنه]] کې د وګړو ترمېنځ د ټولنيزې راکړې ورکړې په اړه بحث کوي. ټولنيزې څېړنې بيا په کوڅه کې د ورکنومو وګړو د لنډو اړيکو د شننو نه نيولې تر نړېوالې ټولنيزې پروسې په ځان کې رانغاړي. د زده کړې په همدې ډګر کې د يو داسې يو ليد لوري ته اشاره شوې چې ولې خلک په ټولنو کې تنظيم شوي، او يا هم ولې د يو وګړي په توګه يا د يوې اتحاديې، د ډلو او انسټيټيوټونو د غړو په توګه انسان خپل ځان ته منظمې ټولنې جوړې کړي. د يوې اکاډميکې زده کړې په توګه ټولنپوهنه د ټولنيزو ساينسونو اهمه برخه ده.
One useful way to describe the discipline is as a cluster of sub-disciplines (sometimes called fields) that examine different dimensions of society. For example, [[social stratification]] studies inequality and [[class structure]]; [[demography]] studies changes in a [[population size]] or type; [[criminology]] examines criminal behavior and deviance; [[political sociology]] studies government and laws; and the [[race relations|sociology of race]] and [[sociology of gender]] examine the [[social construction]] of race and gender as well as race and [[Gender gap|gender inequality]]. New sociological fields and sub-fields—suchfields—such as [[network analysis]] and [[environmental sociology]]—continue—continue to evolve; many of them are cross-disciplinary in nature.
[[Social research | Sociological research]] provides [[educators]], [[urban planner|plannerplanners]]s, [[lawmaker]]s, [[Public administration|administratoradministrators]]s, [[Real-estate developer|developerdevelopers]]s, [[Business magnate | business leaderleaders]]s, and people interested in resolving [[Social issues | social problemproblems]]s and formulating [[public policy]] with [[Rationalization (sociology) | rationales]] for the actions that they take.
== تاريخ ==
{{main|History of sociology}}
[[Imageدوتنه:People3.jpg|thumb|right|200px|[[Social interaction]]s and their consequences are the subject of sociology. (Image: [[Field Museum of Natural History]] in [[Chicago]].)]]
Sociology, in studying society, including economic, political and cultural systems, has origins in the [[common stock]] of human [[knowledge]] and [[philosophy]]. [[Social analysis]] has been carried out by scholars and [[philosophy|philosophers]] at least as early as the time of [[Plato]]. In the [[14th century]], [[Ibn Khaldun]], who is sometimes considered the "[[List of people known as father or mother of something|father of sociology]]",<ref>H. Mowlana (2001). "Information in the Arab World", ''Cooperation South Journal'' '''1'''.</ref><ref>Dr. S. W. Akhtar (1997). "The Islamic Concept of Knowledge", ''Al-Tawhid: A Quarterly Journal of Islamic Thought & Culture'' '''12''' (3).</ref> in his ''[[Muqaddimah]]'', the introduction to a seven volume analysis of [[universal history]], advanced [[social philosophy]] in formulating theories of [[social cohesion]] and [[social conflict]]. (See [[Early Muslim sociology]].)
The word sociology was coined by French thinker [[Auguste Comte]] in 1838 from [[Latin]] ''socius'' (companion, associate) and [[greek language|Greek]] λóγος, ''lógos'' (word). Comte hoped to unify all studies of humankind - including history, psychology and economics. His own sociological scheme was typical of the 19th century; he believed all human life had passed through the same distinct historical stages (theology, metaphysics, [[positive science]]) and that, if one could grasp this progress, one could prescribe the remedies for social ills. Sociology was to be the 'queen of positive sciences.'
[[Imageدوتنه:Karl_Marx.jpg|thumb|150px|left|[[Karl Marx]]]]
"Classical" theorists of sociology from the late 19th and early 20th centuries include [[Karl Marx, [[Ferdinand Tönnies]], [[Émile Durkheim]], [[Vilfredo Pareto]], [[Georg Simmel]], and [[Max Weber]]. Like Comte, these figures did not consider themselves only "sociologists". Their works addressed [[religion]], [[education]], [[economics]], [[law]], [[psychology]], [[ethics]], [[philosophy]], and [[theology]], and their theories have been applied in a variety of academic disciplines. Their influence on sociology was foundational.
=== ښوونځايونو پورې ټولنپوهنه تړل ===
The discipline was taught by its own name for the first time at the [[University of Kansas]], [[Lawrence]] in 1890 by Frank Blackmar, under the course title ''Elements of Sociology'' (the oldest continuing sociology course in America). The ''Department of History and Sociology'' at the University of Kansas was established in 1891 [http://www.ku.edu/%7Esocdept/about/],[http://www.news.ku.edu/2005/June/June15/sociology.shtml], and the first full fledged independent university department of sociology was established in 1892 at the [[University of Chicago]] by [[Albion W. Small]], who in 1895 founded the [[American Journal of Sociology]] [http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/AJS/home.html].
[[Imageدوتنه:Max Weber 1917.jpg|thumb|right|[[Max Weber]]]]
The first European department of sociology was founded in 1895 at the [[University of Bordeaux]] by [[Émile Durkheim]], founder of ''[[Année Sociologique|L'Année Sociologique]]'' (1896). The first sociology department to be established in [[United Kingdom|the United Kingdom]] was at the [[London School of Economics|London School of Economics and Political Science]] (home of the British Journal of Sociology) [http://www.lse.ac.uk/serials/Bjs/] in 1904. In 1919 a sociology department was established in Germany at the [[Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich]] by [[Max Weber]] and in 1920 in [[Poland]] by [[Florian Znaniecki]].
International cooperation in sociology began in 1893 when [[René Worms]] founded the small ''[[Institut International de Sociologie]]'' that was later on eclipsed by the much larger [[International Sociological Association]] [http://www.isa-sociology.org/] starting in 1949 (ISA). 1905, the [[American Sociological Association]], the world's largest [[Voluntary association|association]] of professional sociologists, was founded; in 1909 as well the ''Deutsche Gesellschaft für Soziologie'' ([[German Society for Sociology]]) by [[Ferdinand Tönnies]], [[Max Weber]] et al.
=== مثبتواله او بډمثبتواله ===
:''Articles: [[Positivism]], [[Sociological positivism]], and [[Antipositivism]].''
Early theorists' approach to sociology, led by [[Comte]], was to treat it in much the same manner as [[natural science]], applying the same methods and [[methodology]] used in the natural sciences to study [[Social phenomenon|social phenomena]]. The emphasis on [[empiricism]] and the [[scientific method]] sought to provide an incontestable foundation for any sociological claims or findings, and to distinguish sociology from less empirical fields such as [[philosophy]]. This methodological approach, called [[Sociological positivism|positivism]] aspires to [[explanation]] and [[prediction]]. A non-trivial share of sociologists reject these goals.
One push away from positivism was philosophical and political, such as in the [[dialectical materialism]] based on [[Marx]]'s theories. A second push away from scientific positivism was cultural, even sociological. As early as the 19th century, [[positivist]] and [[Natural science|naturalist]] approaches to studying [[Social relation|social life]] were questioned by scientists like [[Wilhelm Dilthey]] and [[Heinrich Rickert]], who argued that the natural world differs from the [[Social reality|social world]] because of unique aspects of human society such as [[meaning]]s, [[symbol]]s, [[rule]]s, [[Norm (sociology)|normnorms]]s, and [[Value (personal and cultural)|values]]. These elements of society inform human [[culture]]s. This view was further developed by [[Max Weber]], who introduced [[antipositivism]] ([[humanistic sociology]]). According to this view, which is closely related to [[antinaturalism]], sociological research must concentrate on humans' cultural values (see also: [[French pragmatism]]).
<!-- need some wording about subjectivity, postmodernism, and feminist epistemological answers to positivism -->
=== د شلمې پېړۍ پرمختګونه ===
In the early 20th century, sociology expanded in United States, including developments in both [[macrosociology]] interested in [[evolution of societies]] and [[microsociology]]. Based on the [[pragmatism|pragmatic]] social psychology of [[George Herbert Mead]], [[Herbert Blumer]] and other later [[Chicago school]] inspired sociologists developed [[symbolic interactionism]].
Throughout the development of sociology, controversies have raged about how to emphasize or integrate concerns with [[subjectivity]], [[objectivity (science)|objectivity]], [[intersubjectivity]] and practicality in theory and research. The extent to which sociology may be characterized as a '[[science]]' has remained an area of considerable debate, which has addressed basic [[ontological]] and [[epistemological]] [[philosophical]] questions. One outcome of such disputes has been the ongoing formation of multidimensional theories of society, such as the continuing development of various types of [[critical theory]]. Another outcome has been the formation of [[public sociology]], which emphasizes the usefulness of sociological analysis to various social groups.
== Scope and topics of Sociology ==
:''Selected general topics: [[Discrimination]], [[Deviance]] and [[social control]], [[Migration]], [[Social action]], [[Social change]], [[Social class]], [[Social justice]]/[[injustice]], [[Social order]], [[Social status]], [[Social stratification]], [[Socialization]], [[Society]], [[Sociological imagination]], [[Structure and agency]], [[Subfields of sociology]]''
Sociologists study society and social action by examining the groups and [[social institution]]s people form, as well as various social, religious, political, and [[business organizations]]. They also study the [[social interaction]]s of people and groups, trace the origin and growth of social processes, and analyze the influence of group [[activity|activities]] on individual members and vice versa. The results of sociological research aid educators, lawmakers, administrators, and others interested in resolving [[social problems]], working for [[social justice]] and formulating public policy.
Sociologists research macro-[[social structure|structurestructures]]s and processes that organize or affect society, such as [[race]] or [[ethnicity]], [[gender]], [[globalization]], and [[social class]] stratification. They study institutions such as the [[family]] and social processes that represent [[deviation]] from, or the breakdown of, social structures, including [[crime]] and [[divorce]]. And, they research micro-processes such as interpersonal interactions and the [[socialization]] of individuals. Sociologists are also concerned with the effect of social traits such as sex, age, or race on a person’s daily life.
Most sociologists work in one or more specialties, such as [[social stratification]], social organization, and [[social mobility]]; ethnic and [[race relations]]; [[education]]; [[Sociology of the family|family]]; [[social psychology]]; [[urban sociology|urban]], [[rural sociology|rural]], [[political sociology|political]], and [[comparative sociology]]; [[sex roles]] and [[Interpersonal relationship|relationships]]; [[demography]]; [[gerontology]]; [[criminology]]; and [[sociological practice]]. In short, sociologists study the many faces of society.
Although sociology was informed by Comte's conviction that sociology would sit at the apex of all the sciences, sociology today is identified as one of many [[social sciences]] (such as [[anthropology]], [[economics]], [[political science]], [[psychology]], etc.). At times, sociology does integrate the insights of various disciplines, as do other social sciences. Initially, the discipline was concerned particularly with the organization of complex [[industrial society|industrial societies]]. Recent sociologists, taking cues from anthropologists, have noted the "[[Western culture|Western]] emphasis" of the field. In response, sociology departments around the world are encouraging the study of many cultures and multi-national studies.
== ټولنپوهنيزه تيوري ==
:''Main articles: [[sociological theory]] and [[social theory]]''
In empirical social research, empirical findings can provide support for sociological theories and vice versa. For instance, statistical research grounded in the scientific method may find a severe [[income disparity]] between women and men performing the same occupation. This finding supports the complex social theories of [[feminism]] or [[patriarchy]]. A [[sociological perspective]] (see [[sociological imagination]]) has through the years appealed to students and others dissatisfied with the [[status quo]] because it carries the assumption that societal structures may be arbitrary or controlled by specific powerful groups, thus implying the possibility of change.
== ټولنپوهنيزه څېړنه ==
{{main|social research}}
The basic goal of sociological research is to understand the social world in its many forms. [[Quantitative method]]s and [[qualitative method]]s are two main types of [[social research]] methods. Sociologists often use [[quantitative method]]s -- such as [[social statistics]] or [[network analysis]] - to investigate the structure of a social process or describe patterns in social relationships. Sociologists also often use [[qualitative method]]s - such as focused [[interview]]s, group discussions and [[ethnography|ethnographic]] methods - to investigate social processes. Sociologists also use applied research methods such as [[evaluation research]] and [[assessment]].
=== د ټولنپوهنيزو ګروېږنو چلندلار ===
Sociologists use many types of social research methods, including:
* Archival research - Facts or factual evidences from a variety of records are compiled.
* Content Analysis - The contents of books and [[mass media]] are analyzed to study how people communicate and the messages people talk or write about.
* Historical Method - This involves a continuous and systematic search for the information and knowledge about past events related to the life of a person, a group, society, or the world.
* Interviews - The researcher obtains data by interviewing people. If the interview is non-structured, the researcher leaves it to the interviewee (also referred to as the respondent or the informant) to guide the conversation.
* Life History - This is the study of the [[personal life]] trajectories. Through a series of interviews, the researcher can probe into the decisive moments in their life or the various influences on their life.
* Longitudinal study - This is an extensive examination of a specific group over a long period of time.
* Observation - Using data from the senses, one records information about social phenomenon or behavior. Qualitative research relies heavily on observation, although it is in a highly disciplined form.
* Participant Observation - As the name implies, the researcher goes to the field (usually a community), lives with the people for some time, and participates in their activities in order to know and feel their culture.
The choice of a method in part often depends on the researcher's epistemological approach to research. For example, those researchers who are concerned with statistical generalizability to a population will most likely administer structured interviews with a survey questionnaire to a carefully selected probability sample. By contrast, those sociologists, especially ethnographers, who are more interested in having a full contextual understanding of group members lives will choose [[participant observation]], observation, and [[open-ended]] interviews. Many studies combine several of these methodologies.
The relative merits of these research methodologies is a topic of much professional debate among practicing sociologists.
=== څېړنيزې چلندلارې سره يوځای کول ===
په عملي بڼه ځينې ټولنپوهان ډول ډول څېړنيزې تيوريګانې او څېړندودونه يوځای کوي ، دا چې ډول ډول څېړندودونه او تېوريګانې ځن ځانته په ټوپيريز ډول د راموندنې طريقې لري نو دا په مختلفه اړخونو د ټولنې تړواؤ مومي.
In practice, some sociologists combine different research methods and approaches, since different methods produce different types of findings that correspond to different aspects of societies. For example, the quantitative methods may help describe social [[patterns]], while qualitative approaches could help to understand how individuals understand those patterns.
An example of using multiple types of research methods is in the study of the [[Internet]]. The Internet is of interest for sociologists in various ways: as a tool for [[social research|research]], for example, in using [[online]] [[questionnaire]]s instead of paper ones, as a discussion platform, and as a research topic. Sociology of the Internet in the last sense includes analysis of [[online communities]] (e.g. as found in [[newsgroups]]), [[virtual communities]] and [[Virtual World|virtual worlds]], organisational change catalysed through [[new media]] like the Internet, and societal change [[Bloc voting|at-large]] in the transformation from [[industrial society|industrial]] to [[informational society]] (or to [[information society]]). Online communities can be studied statistically through [[network analysis]] and at the same time interpreted qualitatively, such as though [[virtual ethnography]]. Social change can be studied through statistical [[demographics]] or through the interpretation of changing messages and symbols in online [[media studies]].
== ټولنپوهنه او نورې ټولنيزې پوهې ==
Sociology shares deep ties with a wide array of other disciplines that also deal with the study of society. The fields of [[economics]], [[psychology]], and [[anthropology]] have influenced and have been influenced by sociology and these fields share a great amount of history and common research interests.
* [[Timeline of sociology]]
== اخڅونه ==
* Nash, Kate. 2000. ''Contemporary Political Sociology: Globalization, Politics, and Power.'' Blackwell Publishers.
== نورې لوستنې ==
* [[Earl Babbie|Babbie, Earl R.]]. 2003. ''The Practice of Social Research, 10th edition.'' Wadsworth, [[Thomson Learning]] Inc., ISBN 0-534-62029-9
* [[Randall Collins|Collins, Randall]]. 1994. ''Four Sociological Traditions.'' Oxford, [[Oxford University Press]]
* [[Evan Willis|Willis, Evan]]. ³1996. ''The Sociological Quest: An introduction to the study of social life'', [[New Brunswick, New Jersey|New Brunswick, NJ]], [[Rutgers University Press]]. ISBN 0-8135-2367-2
== باندنۍ تړنې ==
{{Wikibooks|Introduction to Sociology}}
=== کارپوهنيزه تنظيمونه ===
* [http://www.asanet.org/ American Sociological Association (ASA)]
* [http://www.tasa.org.au/ Australian Sociological Association (TASA)]
* [http://www.insoso.org/ Indian Sociological Society]
=== نورې سرچينې ===
* [http://www.sociology.org/ د ټولنپوهنې برېښنايي ژورنال]
* [http://www.sociolog.com/ SocioLog], د ټولنپوهنې د سرچينو يو لارښود
* [http://www.sociosite.net/ SocioSite], د ټولنپوهنې د سرچينو يو لارښود
* [http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/sociology_today/ د نن ټولنپوهنه يو برېښناييز فورم]
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