د "توکمپوهنه" د بڼو تر مېنځ توپير

۱٬۳۳۷ تورى ورگډ شول ،  ۱۱ کاله مخکې
د سمون لنډيز پرته
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'''توکمپوهنه''' د دوه نومونو توکم او پوهنې يو تړنګنوم دی. په انګرېزي ژبه يې اېتنولوژي (د [[يوناني ژبه|يوناني]] نه ''اېتنوس'', په مانا د "توکم، يا خلک") بولي. دا پوهنه د وګړپوهنې يوه څانګه ده او په دې کې د بېلابېلو توکمونو د اصل، د وېش سيمې، د تخنيکي پرمختګ، د ژبې، د دين، د ټولنيز جوړښت او د کلتور د شننو او سره پرتللو جاج اخيستل کېږي.<ref>{{cite book |last= Newman|first= Garfield, et al|authorlink= |coauthors= |title= د تېرمهال ازانګې: تر ۱۶مې پېړۍ پورې د نړۍ ترايخ|year= 2001|publisher= McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd|location= Toronto|isbn= 0-07-088739-X}}</ref> Compared to [[ethnography]], the study of single groups through direct contact with the culture, ethnology takes the research that ethnographers have compiled and then compares and contrasts different cultures.
 
'''Ethnology''' (from the [[Greek language|Greek]] ''{{unicode|ἔθνος}}'', ''ethnos'' meaning "people, nation, race") is the branch of [[anthropology]] that compares and analyzes the origins, distribution, technology, [[religion]], [[language]], and social structure of the [[ethnicity|ethnic]], [[Race (classification of human beings)|racial]], and/or [[nation]]al divisions of humanity.<ref>{{cite book |last= Newman|first= Garfield, et al.|authorlink= |coauthors= |title= Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century|year= 2001|publisher= McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd|location= Toronto|isbn= 0-07-088739-X}}</ref>
Among its goals are the reconstruction of [[human history]], and the formulation of [[culture|cultural]] [[universal (metaphysics)|invariants]], such as the alleged [[incest taboo]] and culture change, and the formulation of generalizations about "[[human nature]]", a concept which has been criticized since the 19th century by various philosophers ([[Hegel]], [[Marx]], [[structuralism]], etc.).
 
==Scientific Discipline==
In some parts of the world (like the USA and Great Britain) it is also referred to as cultural or social anthropology, however ethnology is not only a single part of cultural anthropology. Ethnology has been considered as a [[science|scientific]] discipline since the late 18th century but can be generally applied to any comparative study of human groups.
 
Compared to [[ethnography]], the study of single groups through direct contact with the culture, ethnology takes the research that ethnographers have compiled and then compares and contrasts different cultures. The term ''ethnology'' is credited to [[Adam František Kollár|Adam Franz Kollár]] who used and defined it in his ''Historiae ivrisqve pvblici Regni Vngariae amoenitates'' published in [[Vienna]] in 1783.<ref>Zmago Šmitek and Božidar Jezernik, "The anthropological tradition in Slovenia." In: Han F. Vermeulen and Arturo Alvarez Roldán, eds. ''Fieldwork and Footnotes: Studies in the History of European Anthropology.'' 1995.</ref> Kollár's interest in linguistic and cultural diversity was aroused by the situation in his native multi-lingual [[History of Hungary|Kingdom of Hungary]] and his roots among its [[Slovak people|Slovaks]], and by the shifts that began to emerge after the gradual retreat of the [[Ottoman Empire]] in the more distant [[Balkans#Population composition by nationality and religion|Balkans]].<ref>Gheorghiţă Geană, "Discovering the whole of humankind: the genesis of anthropology through the Hegelian looking-glass." In: Han F. Vermeulen and Arturo Alvarez Roldán, eds. Fieldwork and Footnotes: Studies in the History of European Anthropology.'' 1995.</ref>
The 15th century "discovery of America" had an important role in the new [[Occident]]al interest toward the [[Other]], often qualified as "savages", which was either seen as a brutal barbarian or as a "[[noble savage]]". Thus, [[civilization]] was opposed in a [[dualism|dualist]] manner to [[barbary]], a classic opposition constitutive of the even more commonly-shared [[ethnocentrism]]. The progress of ethnology, for example with [[Claude Lévi-Strauss]]'s [[structural anthropology]], led to the criticism of conceptions of a linear [[progress (philosophy)|progress]], or the pseudo-opposition between "societies with histories" and "societies without histories", judged too dependent on a limited view of [[history]] as constituted by accumulative growth.
 
Among the goals of ethnology have been the reconstruction of [[human history]], and the formulation of [[culture|cultural]] [[universal (metaphysics)|invariants]], such as the [[incest taboo]] and culture change, and the formulation of generalizations about "[[human nature]]", a concept which has been criticized since the 19<sup>th</sup> century by various philosophers ([[Hegel]], [[Marx]], [[structuralism]], etc.). In some parts of the world ethnology has developed along independent paths of investigation and [[Pedagogy|pedagogical]] doctrine, with ''[[cultural anthropology]]'' becoming dominant especially in the [[United States]], and ''[[social anthropology]]'' in [[Great Britain]]. The distinction between the three terms is increasingly blurry. Ethnology has been considered an academic field since the late 18th century especially in Europe and is sometimes conceived of as any comparative study of human groups.
Lévi-Strauss often referred to [[Montaigne]]'s [[Essays (Montaigne)|essay]] on [[anthropophagy]] as an early example of "ethnology". Lévi-Strauss aimed, through a [[structuralist|structural method]], at discovering universal invariants in human society, which he thought was the prohibition of the [[incest taboo|incest]]. However, the claims of such cultural [[universalism]] have been criticized by various 19th and 20th century social thinkers, among the more important include: [[Marx]], [[Nietzsche]], [[Foucault]], [[Althusser]] and [[Deleuze]].
 
The 15th century "discovery of America" had an important role in the new [[Occident]]al interest toward the "[[Other]]", often qualified as "savages", which was either seen as a brutal barbarian or as a "[[noble savage]]". Thus, [[civilization]] was opposed in a [[dualism|dualist]] manner to [[barbary]], a classic opposition constitutive of the even more commonly-shared [[ethnocentrism]]. The progress of ethnology, for example with [[Claude Lévi-Strauss]]'s [[structural anthropology]], led to the criticism of conceptions of a linear [[progress (philosophy)|progress]], or the pseudo-opposition between "societies with histories" and "societies without histories", judged too dependent on a limited view of [[history]] as constituted by accumulative growth.
== د توکمپوهنې د پوهانو لړليک ==
<!-- please list only very famous or important scholars here -->
 
Lévi-Strauss often referred to [[Montaigne]]'s [[Essays (Montaigne)|essay]] on [[cannibalism]] as an early example of ethnology. Lévi-Strauss aimed, through a [[structuralist|structural method]], at discovering universal invariants in human society, chief among which he believed to be the [[incest taboo]]. However, the claims of such cultural [[Universality (philosophy)|universalism]] have been criticized by various 19th and 20th century social thinkers, including [[Marx]], [[Nietzsche]], [[Foucault]], [[Althusser]] and [[Deleuze]].
* [[Amadou Hampâté Bâ]]
* [[Johann Georg Adam Forster]]
* [[Pierre Clastres]]
* [[Horatio Hale]]
* [[Yanagita Kunio]]
* [[Claude Lévi-Strauss]]
* [[Marcel Mauss]]
* [[David Maybury-Lewis]]
* [[Alfred Metraux]]
* [[James Mooney]]
* [[Augustus Pitt Rivers]]
* [[Wilhelm Schmidt]]
* [[Ruth Benedict]]
* [[Bronislaw Malinowski]]
* The [[Brothers Grimm]]
* [[Josiah Nott]]
* [[Louis Nicolas]]
* [[Marshall Sahlins]]
 
The French school of ethnology was particularly significant for the development of the discipline since the early 1950s with [[Marcel Griaule]], [[Germaine Dieterlen]], [[Claude Lévi-Strauss]] and [[Jean Rouch]].
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== سرچينې Scholars==
* [[List of scholars of ethnology]]
<!-- please include only very famous or/and easily accessible works here; put original dates of publication; only a few representative works by author-->
 
== See also ==
*[[Johann Georg Adam Forster]] ''Voyage round the World in His Britannic Majesty’s Sloop, Resolution, Commanded by Capt. James Cook, during the Years 1772, 3, 4, and 5'' (2 vols), London (1777)
*[[Anthropology]]
*[[Claude Lévi-Strauss|Lévi-Strauss, Claude]], ''The Elementary Structurs of Kinship'', (1949), [http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0807046698], ''Structural Anthropology''' (1958)[http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/046509516X]
*[[Mauss]], Marcel, originally published as ''Essai sur le don. Forme et raison de l'échange dans les sociétés archaïques'' in 1925, this classic text on [[gift economy]] appears in the English edition as '' The Gift: The Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic Societies''[http://www.amazon.com/dp/039332043X/].
*[[David Maybury-Lewis|Maybury-Lewis, David]], ''Akwe-Shavante society''. (1967) [http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0195197291], ''The Politics of Ethnicity: Indigenous Peoples in Latin American States'' (2003)[http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/MAYPOL.html?show=contents].
*[[Pierre Clastres|Clastres, Pierre]], ''Society Against the State'' (1974), [http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0942299019]
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== دا هم وګورۍ ==
*[[وګړپوهنه]]
*[[Cultural Survival]]
*[[هڅوبCulture]]
*[[Ethnocentrism]]
*[[توکميزمرکزيت]]
*[[توکميزه فلسفه]]
*[[Evolutionism]]
*[[Functionalism]]
*[[Indigenous Peoples]]
*[[Intangible Cultural Heritage]]
*[[مارکسيزم]]
*[[نوښتMarxism]]
*[[Modernism]]
*[[Post-Modernism]]
*[[Postcolonial]]
*[[Primitive culture]]
*[[Primitivism]]
*[[راسيزمRacism]]
*[[ټولنهSociety]]
*[[Structural anthropology]]
*[[جوړښتي وګړپوهنه]]
 
== References ==
== د توکمپوهنې په اړه وېبپاڼې ==
{{Reflist}}
* http://www.ethnologue.com/ describes the languages and ethnic groups found worldwide, grouped by host nation-state.
 
* http://www.movinganthropology.org - The Moving Anthropology Student Network/Moving Anthropology Social Network connects young anthropologists and anthropology students from European and other countries
== Bibliography ==
<!-- Please include only very famous or/and easily accessible works here; put original dates of publication; only a few representative works by author.-->
 
*[[Johann Georg Adam Forster]] ''Voyage round the World in His Britannic Majesty’s Sloop, Resolution, Commanded by Capt. James Cook, during the Years 1772, 3, 4, and 5'' (2 vols), London (1777)
*[[Claude Lévi-Strauss|Lévi-Strauss, Claude]], ''The Elementary Structures of Kinship'', (1949), ''Structural Anthropology'' (1958)
*[[Mauss]], Marcel, originally published as ''Essai sur le don. Forme et raison de l'échange dans les sociétés archaïques'' in 1925, this classic text on [[gift economy]] appears in the English edition as '' The Gift: The Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic Societies''.
*[[David Maybury-Lewis|Maybury-Lewis, David]], ''Akwe-Shavante society''. (1967), ''The Politics of Ethnicity: Indigenous Peoples in Latin American States'' (2003)[http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/MAYPOL.html?show=contents].
*[[Pierre Clastres|Clastres, Pierre]], ''Society Against the State'' (1974),
*Pop, Mihai and Glauco Sanga, ''[http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0391-9099%28198004%291%3C89%3APGDE%3E2.0.CO%3B2-O&size=LARGE&origin=JSTOR-enlargePage Problemi generali dell'etnologia europea]'' La Ricerca Folklorica, No. 1, La cultura popolare. Questioni teoriche (Apr., 1980), pp. 89–96
 
==Websites relating to ethnology==
* [http://www.ethnologue.com/ Languages] describes the languages and ethnic groups found worldwide, grouped by host nation-state.
* [http://anthro.amnh.org/anthro.html Division of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History] - Over 160,000 objects from Pacific, North American, African, Asian ethnographic collections with images and detailed description, linked to the original catalogue pages, field notebooks, and photographs are available online.
* [http://www.minpaku.ac.jp/english/ National Museum of Ethnology] - [[Osaka]], [[Japan]]
* [http://www.etnoloji.com/ Turkish Ethnology Source (in Turkish)]
 
[[Category:Ethnology|*]]
[[وېشنيزه:وګړپوهنه]]
[[Category:Ethnicity]]
[[وېشنيزه:توکمپوهنه]]
[[Category:Folklore]]
[[وېشنيزه:فولکولور]]
[[Category:Social sciences]]
[[وېشنيزه:ټولنيزې پوهنې]]
[[Category:Sociology of culture]]
 
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