د "ژونکيميا" د بڼو تر مېنځ توپير

۱ بايټ ورگډ شو ،  ۱۰ کاله مخکې
و (robot Modifying: lmo:Biuchimica)
 
===مونوسکرايډونه===
[[Image:GlucoseBeta-2DD-skeletalGlucose.pngsvg|thumb|200px|[[Glucose]]]]
The simplest type of carbohydrate is a [[monosaccharide]], which among other properties contains carbon, [[hydrogen]], and [[oxygen]], mostly in a ratio of 1:2:1 (generalized formula C<sub>''n''</sub>H<sub>2''n''</sub>O<sub>''n''</sub>, where ''n'' is at least 3). [[Glucose]], one of the most important carbohydrates, is an example of a monosaccharide. So is [[fructose]], the sugar that gives [[fruit]]s their sweet taste. Some carbohydrates (especially after [[condensation reaction|condensation]] to oligo- and polysaccharides) contain less carbon relative to H and O, which still are present in 2:1 (H:O) ratio. Monosaccharides can be grouped into [[aldoses]] (having an [[aldehyde]] group at the end of the chain, e. g. glucose) and [[ketoses]] (having a [[keto]] group in their chain; e. g. fructose). Both aldoses and ketoses occur in an [[Chemical equilibrium|equilibrium]] between the open-chain forms and (starting with chain lengths of C4) cyclic forms. These are generated by bond formation between one of the hydroxyl groups of the sugar chain with the carbon of the aldehyde or keto group to form a [[hemiacetal]] bond. This leads to saturated five-membered (in furanoses) or six-membered (in pyranoses) [[heterocyclic]] rings containing one O as heteroatom.
 
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