د "هنرېک ايبسن" د بڼو تر مېنځ توپير

۵۹ تورى ورگډ شول ،  ۱۳ کاله مخکې
و
robot Adding: war:Henrik Ibsen; cosmetic changes
و (roboto aldono de: ga:Henrik Ibsen)
و (robot Adding: war:Henrik Ibsen; cosmetic changes)
{{دليکوال-مالوماتبکس
| نوم = هنرېک ايبسن<br /> Henrik Ibsen
| image = Ibsen photography.jpg
| caption =
هنرېک جان ايبسن "Henrik Johan Ibsen"
 
([[March 20]], [[1828]]&ndash;[[May 23]], [[1906]]) was an extremely influential [[Norway|Norwegian]] [[playwright]] who was largely responsible for the rise of the modern [[realism (arts)|realistic]] [[drama]] (dubbed "the father of modern drama"). It is said that Ibsen is the most frequently performed dramatist in the world after [[Shakespeare]]. He is held to be the greatest Norwegian author of all times, being celebrated as a national symbol by Norwegians, and as one of the most important playwrights in world history.
 
[[Imageدوتنه:Henrik Ibsen.jpg|thumb|250|leftt|د هنرېک ايبسن د وروستيو وختونو يو انځور]]
 
His plays were considered scandalous to many of his era, when [[Victorian morality|Victorian values]] of family life and propriety largely held sway in Europe and any challenge to them was considered immoral and outrageous. Ibsen's work examined the realities that lay behind many facades, which his society did not want to see.
Ibsen largely founded the modern stage by introducing a critical eye and free inquiry into the conditions of life and issues of morality. Victorian-era plays were expected to be [[Morality play|moral dramas]] with noble protagonists pitted against darker forces. Every drama was expected to result in a morally appropriate conclusion, meaning that goodness was to bring happiness, and immorality only pain. Ibsen challenged this notion and the beliefs of his times and shattered the illusions of his audiences.
 
== کورنۍ او ځواني ==
 
He was born to Knud Ibsen and Marichen Altenburg, a relatively well-to-do merchant family, in the small port town of [[Skien]], [[Norway]], which was primarily noted for shipping timber. He was a descendant of some of the oldest and most distinguished families of Norway, like the Paus family. Shortly after his birth, however, his family's fortunes took a significant turn for the worse. His mother turned to religion for solace, while his father declined into a severe [[clinical depression|depression]]. The characters in his plays often mirror his parents, and his themes often deal with issues of financial difficulty as well as moral conflicts stemming from dark private secrets hidden from society.
Ibsen var en bra kar.
 
== ژوند او ليکوالي ==
 
He spent the next several years employed at the [[Bergen norske Theater|Norwegian Theater]] in [[Bergen, Norway|Bergen]], where he was involved in the production of more than 145 plays as a writer, director, and producer. During this period he did not publish any new plays of his own. Despite Ibsen's failure to achieve success as a playwright, he gained a great deal of practical experience at the Norwegian Theater, experience that was to prove valuable when he continued writing.
Ibsen moved from Italy to [[Dresden]], [[Germany]] in [[1868]]. Here he spent years writing the play he himself regarded as his main work, ''[[Emperor and Galilean]]'' ([[1873]]), dramatizing the life and times of the Roman emperor [[Julian the Apostate]]. But although Ibsen himself always looked back on this play as the cornerstone of his entire works, very few shared his opinion. And his next works would be much more acclaimed.
 
[[Imageدوتنه:Ibsen-Dresden.jpg|left|thumb|170px|Portrait from around 1870]]
Ibsen moved to [[Munich]] in [[1875]] and published ''[[A Doll's House]]'' in [[1879]]. The play is a scathing criticism of the traditional roles of men and women in Victorian marriage.
 
Ibsen displays masterful use of [[irony]]: despite his dogmatic insistence on truth, Gregers never says what he thinks but only insinuates, and is never understood until the play reaches its climax. Gregers hammers away at Hjalmar through innuendo and coded phrases until he realizes the truth; Gina's daughter, Hedvig, is not his child. Blinded by Gregers' insistence on absolute truth, he disavows the child. Seeing the damage he has wrought, Gregers determines to repair things, and suggests to Hedvig that she sacrifice the wild duck, her wounded pet, to prove her love for Hjalmar. Hedvig, alone among the characters, recognizes that Gregers always speaks in code, and looking for the deeper meaning in the first important statement Gregers makes which does not contain one, kills herself rather than the duck in order to prove her love for him in the ultimate act of self-sacrifice. Only too late do Hjalmar and Gregers realize that the absolute truth of the "ideal" is sometimes too much for the human heart to bear.
 
[[Imageدوتنه:Handwriting2.jpg|left|thumb|300px|Letter from Ibsen to [[Edmund Gosse]] in 1899]]
 
Probably Ibsen's most performed play is ''[[Hedda Gabler]]'' ([[1890]]), the leading female role being regarded as one of the most challenging and rewarding for an actress even in the present day. There are many similarities between Hedda and the character of Nora in ''A Doll's House''.
Finally, Ibsen returned to Norway in [[1891]], but it was in many ways not the Norway he had left. Indeed, he had played a major role in the changes that had happened across society. The Victorian Age was on its last legs, to be replaced by the rise of Modernism not only in the theater, but across public life.
 
With a stellar career behind him, the likes of which few authors or playwrights ever see, Ibsen passed away after a series of [[stroke]]s in [[Kristiania]] in [[1906]] at the age of 78. He did particularly well in his last words, with his nurse assuring a visitor that the playwright was a little better, only for Ibsen to splutter "On the contrary" - and die. Ibsen was a great influence on many intellectuals and activists of his time, for instance anarchist [[Emma Goldman|Emma Goldman]] and [[Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson]].
 
== List of Works ==
* (1850) ''[[Peng(play)|Peng]]'' (''Catilina'')
* (1850) ''[[The Burial Mound]]'' (''Kjæmpehøjen'')
* (1899) ''[[When We Dead Awaken]]'' (''Når vi døde vågner'')
 
== External links ==
{{wikiquote}}
* [http://www.ibsen.net/?id=83 Ibsen.net - All about Ibsen]
* {{gutenberg|no=8152|name=Henrik Ibsen}} (the biography by [[Edmund Gosse]])
 
[[Categoryوېشنيزه:1828 births|Ibsen, Henrik]]
[[Categoryوېشنيزه:1906 deaths|Ibsen, Henrik]]
[[Categoryوېشنيزه:Norwegian dramatists and playwrights|Ibsen, Henrik]]
[[Categoryوېشنيزه:Norwegian writers|Ibsen, Henrik]]
[[Categoryوېشنيزه:Order of St. Olav|Ibsen, Henrik]]
 
[[af:Henrik Ibsen]]
[[vi:Henrik Ibsen]]
[[vo:Henrik Ibsen]]
[[war:Henrik Ibsen]]
[[yi:הענריק איבסן]]
[[zh:亨利克·易卜生]]
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