د "ويدونه" د بڼو تر مېنځ توپير

۱۲۴ بايټونه ورگډ شول ،  ۱۳ کاله مخکې
The Vedic period lasts for at least a millennium, spanning the Late Bronze Age and the [[Iron Age India|Iron Age]]. {{Harvtxt|Flood|1996|p=37}} sums up mainstream estimates, according to which the Rigveda was composed from as early as 1500 BCE over a period of several centuries. The Vedic period reaches its peak only after the composition of the mantra texts, with the establishment of the various [[shakha]]s all over Northern India which annotated the mantra [[samhitas]] with [[Brahmana]] commentaries, and reaches its end in the age of [[Buddha]] and [[Panini (grammarian)|Panini]] and the rise of the [[Mahajanapadas]] (archaeologically, [[Northern Black Polished Ware]]). Michael Witzel gives a time span of c. 1500 BCE to c. 500-400 BCE. Witzel makes special reference to the [[Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni|Mitanni material]] of ca. 1400 BCE is the only epigraphic record of Indo-Aryan that may date to the Rigvedic period, admitting this does still not allow for an absolute dating of any Vedic text. He gives 150 BCE ([[Patanjali]]) as a ''terminus ante quem'' for all Vedic Sanskrit literature, and 1200 BCE (the early [[Iron Age India|Iron Age]]) as ''terminus post quem'' for the Atharvaveda.<ref>Witzel, Michael, "Vedas and {{IAST|Upaniṣads}}", in: {{Harvnb|Flood|2003|p=68}}</ref>
 
== د ويدي ليكنو كټګوريانې ==
== Categories of Vedic texts ==
د ويدا مذهبي او فلسفي ليكنې په لومړي سر كې په څلورو ويدي كتابونو وېشل كږي:
# رېګ وېدا
# ساما وېدا
#يجور وېدا
#اتر وېدا
 
له دېڅخه وروسته دا هر كتاب په څلورو برخو وېشل كېږي:
# سمهتاس
# برهمناس
# ارنيكا
# اوپنېشاد <ref>{{Harvnb|Michaels|2004|p=51}}.</ref><ref>Witzel, Michael, "Vedas and {{IAST|Upaniṣads}}", in: {{Harvnb|Flood|2003|p=69}}.</ref>
 
Vedic texts are traditionally categorized into four classes: the {{IAST|Saṃhitās}} (mantras), [[Brahmana]]s, [[Aranyaka]]s, and [[Upanishad]]s.<ref>{{Harvnb|Michaels|2004|p=51}}.</ref><ref>Witzel, Michael, "Vedas and {{IAST|Upaniṣads}}", in: {{Harvnb|Flood|2003|p=69}}.</ref> Also classified as "Vedic" is certain [[Sutra]] literature, i.e. the [[Shrautasutra]]s and the [[Grhyasutra]]s.
* The Samhita (Sanskrit ''{{IAST|saṃhitā}}'', "collection"), are collections of metric texts ("[[mantra]]s"). There are four "Vedic" Samhitas: the [[Rigveda|Rig-Veda]], [[Samaveda|Sama-Veda]], [[Yajurveda|Yajur-Veda]], and [[Atharvaveda|Atharva-Veda]], most of which are available in several recensions (''{{IAST|śākhā}}''). In some contexts, the term Veda is used to refer to these Samhitas. This is the oldest layer of Vedic texts, apart from the Rigvedic hymns, which were probably essentially complete by 1200 BC, dating to ca. the 12th to 10th centuries BC. The complete corpus of Vedic mantras as collected in [[Maurice Bloomfield|Bloomfield]]'s ''Vedic Concordance'' (1907) consists of some 89,000 [[pada]]s ([[foot (poetry)|metric feet]]), of which 72,000 occur in the four Samhitas.<ref>37,575 are Rigvedic. Of the remaining, 34,857 appear in the other three samhitas, and 16,405 are known only from Brahmanas, Upanishads or Sutras)</ref>