د "ويدونه" د بڼو تر مېنځ توپير

۱۷٬۹۱۲ بايټونه ورگډ شول ،  ۱۳ کاله مخکې
د سمون لنډيز پرته
(نوی مخ: ويداس چې د انګليسي ويي (Vidas) ژباړه ده، د ويد ډرى ده، چې يو يې وېد راځي، وېدونه د څلورو هندو مذهب سپېڅلي ...)
 
ويد د پوهې، پوهېدلو، يادولو، سوچ كولو، غور و فكر كولو، پېژندنې او ادراك په ماناؤ دى.
ويد د هغه پوهنيز ادب نوم دى، كوم چې هندوانو د زرګونو كلونو په شاوخوا كې د خپلو كولتوري، ادبي، سياسي، او ټولنيزو چارو د كړو وړو څڅه رامنځته كړي دي.
 
{{Hindu scriptures}}
:''"Veda" redirects here. For other uses, see [[Veda (disambiguation)]].''
The '''Vedas''' ([[Sanskrit]] ''{{IAST|véda}}'' {{lang|sa|वेद}} "knowledge") are a large corpus of texts originating in [[History of India|Ancient India]]. They form the oldest layer of [[Sanskrit literature]]<ref>see e.g. {{Harvnb|MacDonell|2004|p=29-39}}; ''Sanskrit literature'' (2003) in Philip's Encyclopedia. Accesed 2007-08-09</ref> and the oldest [[Hindu scripture|sacred texts]] of [[Hinduism]].<ref>see e.g. {{Harvnb|Radhakrishnan|Moore|1957|p=3}}; Witzel, Michael, "Vedas and {{IAST|Upaniṣads}}", in: {{Harvnb|Flood|2003|p=68}}</ref>
 
د هندي كولتور له مخې، وېدونه د انسان جوړښت او ليكنې نه دي. بلكه دا د څښتن له لورې وحې كړاى شوي كتابونه دي، او له هغه څخه سرچينه اخلي،دا وحې د هندو مذهب په پېغمبرانو (رېشيانو) باندې رانازلې شوې دي.
 
د هندوانو پر وړاند دا سپېڅلي كتابونه د الهي وحى درجه لري، <ref> Apte, pp. 109f. has "not of the authorship of man, of divine origin"</ref> نو لدې امله يې د سروتي ''[[śruti]]'' يا هغه څه چې اورېدل شويې وي، په نامه يادوي. ").<ref>{{Harvnb|Apte|1965|p=887}}</ref><ref>{{Harvnb|Muller|1891|p=17-18}}</ref>
ويدي منترونه ددې مذهب په لمانځنو، مذهبي غونډو او داسې نورو د خوشاليو غونډو كې لوستل كېږي.
 
هغه مذهبي او فلسفي ډلې چې د هند په نيمه وچه كې منځته راغلي، د وېدونو په اړه، يو له بله بېل نظر لري. د هندي فلسفې ښوونځيو چا چې وېدونه د خپلو فلسفي ښوونځيو
 
دوه نورو هندي فلسفي ډلو بوديزم او جېنيزم وېدونه په بشپړ ډول رد كړل، او له منلو څخه يې انكار وكړ، او ځانته، ځانته لارې يې خپلېكړې.
په هندي فلسفه كې دا ډلې د ويد نه منونكو ښوونځيو په نامه يادېږي. "heterodox" or "non-Vedic" ([[nastika|nāstika]]) schools.<ref>{{Harvnb|Flood|1996|p=82}}</ref>
 
 
 
== Etymology and usage==
 
The Sanskrit word ''{{IAST|véda}}'' "knowledge, wisdom" is derived from the root ''vid-'' "to know". This is reconstructed as being derived from the [[Proto-Indo-European language|Proto-Indo-European]] root ''{{PIE|*u̯eid-}}'', meaning "see" or "know".<ref>{{Harvnb|Monier-Williams|2006|p=1015}}; {{Harvnb|Apte|1965|p=856}}</ref>
 
As a noun, the word appears only in a single instance in the Rigveda, in [[RV 8]].19.5, translated by Griffith as "ritual lore":
:''{{IAST| yáḥ samídhā yá âhutī / yó védena dadâśa márto agnáye / yó námasā svadhvaráḥ}}''
:"The mortal who hath ministered to Agni with oblation, fuel, ritual lore, and reverence, skilled in sacrifice."
The noun is from PIE ''{{PIE|*u̯eidos}}'', cognate to Greek {{lang|grc|(ϝ)εἶδος}} "aspect, form". Not to be confused is the homonymous 1st and 3rd person singular perfect tense ''{{IAST|véda}}'', cognate to Greek {{lang|grc|(ϝ)οἶδα}} ''(w)oida'' "I know". Root cognate are Greek [[idea|ἰδέα]], English ''wit'', ''witness'', German ''wissen'' (to know, knowledge), Swedish ''veta'' (to know), Latin ''[[video]]'' (I see), [[Czech language|Czech]] ''vím'' (I know) or ''vidím'' (I see) .<ref>see e.g. Pokorny's 1959 ''[[Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch]]'' s.v. ''{{PIE|u̯(e)id-}}''².</ref>
 
In its narrowest sense, the term Veda is used to refer to the ''Samhitas'' (collection of ''[[mantras]]'', or chants) associated with the four canonical Vedas (Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharavaveda) though typically the reference also includes the ''Brahmanas'', ''Aranyakas'' and ''Upanishads'' attached to the ''Samhitas''. In post-Vedic speculation, the term was further extended to refer to ''[[Itihasa]]s'' (epics) and ''[[Puranas]]'', each of which is sometimes designated as the "fifth Veda"; and in its widest interpretation, Veda can subsume "potentially all brahmanical texts, teachings and practices."<ref>{{Harvnb|Holredge|1995|p=7}}</ref> In its primary meaning, as a common noun meaning "knowledge"", ''{{IAST|veda}}'' can also be used to refer to fields of study unrelated to liturgy or ritual, freely compounded e.g. in ''{{IAST|agada-veda}}'' "medical science", ''{{IAST|sasya-veda}}'' "science of agriculture" or ''{{IAST|sarpa-veda}}'' "science of snakes"; ''{{IAST|durveda}}'' means "without knowledge, ignorant".
 
== Dating ==
{{main|Vedic period}}
 
The Vedas are arguably the [[early literature|oldest sacred texts]] that are still used. Most [[Indologist]]s agree that an [[oral tradition]] existed long before a literary tradition gradually sets in from about the 2nd century BCE.<ref>For written texts during second century BCE see: Witzel, Michael, "Vedas and {{IAST|Upaniṣads}}", in: {{Harvnb|Flood|2003|p=69}}; For composition and oral transmission for "many hundreds of years" before being written down, see: {{Harvnb|Avari|2007|p=76}}.</ref>
Due to the ephemeral nature of the manuscript material (birch bark or palm leaves), surviving manuscripts rarely surpass an age of a few hundred years.
The oldest surviving manuscripts of the Rigveda are dated to the 11th century.
 
The Vedic period lasts for at least a millennium, spanning the Late Bronze Age and the [[Iron Age India|Iron Age]]. {{Harvtxt|Flood|1996|p=37}} sums up mainstream estimates, according to which the Rigveda was composed from as early as 1500 BCE over a period of several centuries. The Vedic period reaches its peak only after the composition of the mantra texts, with the establishment of the various [[shakha]]s all over Northern India which annotated the mantra [[samhitas]] with [[Brahmana]] commentaries, and reaches its end in the age of [[Buddha]] and [[Panini (grammarian)|Panini]] and the rise of the [[Mahajanapadas]] (archaeologically, [[Northern Black Polished Ware]]). Michael Witzel gives a time span of c. 1500 BCE to c. 500-400 BCE. Witzel makes special reference to the [[Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni|Mitanni material]] of ca. 1400 BCE is the only epigraphic record of Indo-Aryan that may date to the Rigvedic period, admitting this does still not allow for an absolute dating of any Vedic text. He gives 150 BCE ([[Patanjali]]) as a ''terminus ante quem'' for all Vedic Sanskrit literature, and 1200 BCE (the early [[Iron Age India|Iron Age]]) as ''terminus post quem'' for the Atharvaveda.<ref>Witzel, Michael, "Vedas and {{IAST|Upaniṣads}}", in: {{Harvnb|Flood|2003|p=68}}</ref>
 
== Categories of Vedic texts ==
 
Vedic texts are traditionally categorized into four classes: the {{IAST|Saṃhitās}} (mantras), [[Brahmana]]s, [[Aranyaka]]s, and [[Upanishad]]s.<ref>{{Harvnb|Michaels|2004|p=51}}.</ref><ref>Witzel, Michael, "Vedas and {{IAST|Upaniṣads}}", in: {{Harvnb|Flood|2003|p=69}}.</ref> Also classified as "Vedic" is certain [[Sutra]] literature, i.e. the [[Shrautasutra]]s and the [[Grhyasutra]]s.
* The Samhita (Sanskrit ''{{IAST|saṃhitā}}'', "collection"), are collections of metric texts ("[[mantra]]s"). There are four "Vedic" Samhitas: the [[Rigveda|Rig-Veda]], [[Samaveda|Sama-Veda]], [[Yajurveda|Yajur-Veda]], and [[Atharvaveda|Atharva-Veda]], most of which are available in several recensions (''{{IAST|śākhā}}''). In some contexts, the term Veda is used to refer to these Samhitas. This is the oldest layer of Vedic texts, apart from the Rigvedic hymns, which were probably essentially complete by 1200 BC, dating to ca. the 12th to 10th centuries BC. The complete corpus of Vedic mantras as collected in [[Maurice Bloomfield|Bloomfield]]'s ''Vedic Concordance'' (1907) consists of some 89,000 [[pada]]s ([[foot (poetry)|metric feet]]), of which 72,000 occur in the four Samhitas.<ref>37,575 are Rigvedic. Of the remaining, 34,857 appear in the other three samhitas, and 16,405 are known only from Brahmanas, Upanishads or Sutras)</ref>
 
* The [[Brahmanas]] are prose texts that discuss, in technical fashion, the solemn sacrificial rituals as well as comment on their meaning and many connected themes. Each of the Brahmanas is associated with one of the Samhitas or its recensions. The Brahmanas may either form separate texts or can be partly integrated into the text of the Samhitas. They may also include the Aranyakas and Upanishads.
 
*The [[Aranyakas]], or "wilderness texts", are the concluding part of the Brahmanas that contain discussions and interpretations of dangerous rituals (to be studied outside the settlement) and various sorts of additional materials.
 
*The [[Upanishads]] are largely philosophical works in dialog form. They discuss question of nature philosophy and the fate of the soul, and contain some mystic and spiritual interpretations of the Vedas. For long, they have been regarded as their putative end and essence, and are thus known as Vedānta ("the end of the Vedas"). Taken together, they are the basis of the [[Vedanta]] school.
 
This group of texts is called ''shruti'' (Sanskrit: ''{{IAST|śruti}}''; "the heard"). Since post-Vedic times it has been considered to be revealed wisdom, as distinct from other texts, collectively known as ''smriti'' (Sanskrit: ''{{IAST|smṛti}}''; "the remembered"), that is texts that are considered to be of human origin. This system of categorization was developed by [[Max Müller]] and, while it is subject to some debate, it is still widely used. As Axel Michaels explains:
<blockquote>
These classifications are often not tenable for linguistic and formal reasons: There is not only ''one'' collection at any one time, but rather several handed down in separate Vedic schools; Upanişads ... are sometimes not to be distinguished from {{IAST|Āraṇyakas}}...; {{IAST|Brāhmaṇas}} contain older strata of language attributed to the {{IAST|Saṃhitās}}; there are various dialects and locally prominent traditions of the Vedic schools. Nevertheless, it is advisable to stick to the division adopted by Max Müller because it follows the Indian tradition, conveys the historical sequence fairly accurately, and underlies the current editions, translations, and monographs on Vedic literature."<ref>{{Harvnb|Michaels|2004|p=51}}.</ref>
</blockquote>
 
The [[Shrauta Sutras]], regarded as belonging to the smriti, are late Vedic in language and content, thus forming part of the Vedic Sanskrit corpus.<ref>Witzel, Michael, "Vedas and {{IAST|Upaniṣads}}", in: {{Harvnb|Flood|2003|p=69}}.</ref><ref>For a table of all Vedic texts see Witzel, Michael, "Vedas and {{IAST|Upaniṣads}}", in: {{Harvnb|Flood|2003|p=100–101}}.</ref>
The composition of the Shrauta and Grhya Sutras (ca. 6th century BC) marks the end of the Vedic period , and at the same time the beginning of the flourishing of the "circum-Vedic" scholarship of [[Vedanga]], introducing the early flowering of classical [[Sanskrit literature]] in the [[Maurya]] period.
 
While production of Brahmanas and Aranyakas ceases with the end of the Vedic period, there is a large number of Upanishads composed after the end of the Vedic period. While most of the ten [[mukhya]] Upanishads can be considered to date to the Vedic or Mahajanapada period, most of the 108 Upanishads of the full [[Muktika]] canon date to the Common Era.
The [[Brahmanas]], [[Aranyakas]], and [[Upanishads]] often interpret the polytheistic and ritualistic [[Samhitas]] in philosophical and metaphorical ways to explore abstract concepts such as the Absolute ([[Brahman]]), and the soul or the self ([[Atman (Hinduism)|Atman]]), introducing [[Vedanta]] philosophy, the basis of later [[Hinduism]].
 
== Vedic schools or recensions ==
{{main|Shakha}}
 
Study of the extensive body of Vedic texts has been organized into a number of different schools or branches (Sanskrit ''{{IAST|śākhā}}'', literally "branch" or "limb") each of which specialized in learning certain texts.<ref>{{Harvnb|Flood|1996|p=39}}.</ref> Multiple recensions are known for each of the Vedas, and each Vedic text may have a number of schools associated with it. Elaborate methods for preserving the text were originally based on memorizing by heart instead of writing. Specific techniques for parsing and chanting the texts were used to assist in the memorization process. (''See also: [[patha]]'')
 
Exegetical literature developed in the Vedic schools but comparatively few early medieval commentaries have survived. [[Sayana]], from the 14th century, is known for his elaborate commentaries on the Vedic texts. All classes (varna) in early Vedic society were allowed to study the Vedas and there were Vedic sages that authored the Vedas(Rishis)that were women. However, the later [[dharmashastra]]s, from the [[Sutra]] age, dictate and women and [[Shudra]]s were neither required nor allowed to study the Veda.{{Fact|date=April 2007}} These [[dharmashastra]]s regard the study of the Vedas a religious duty of the three upper [[varnas]] (Brahmins, [[Kshatriya]]s and [[Vaishya]]s).{{Fact|date=April 2007}}
 
==The Four Vedas ==
The canonical division of the Vedas is fourfold (''{{IAST|turīya}}'') viz.,<ref>{{Harvnb|Radhakrishnan|Moore|1957|p=3}}; Witzel, Michael, "Vedas and {{IAST|Upaniṣads}}", in: {{Harvnb|Flood|2003|p=68}}</ref>
#[[Rig-Veda]] (RV)
#[[Yajur-Veda]] (YV, with the main division [[Taittiriya Shakha|TS]] vs. [[Vajasaneyi|VS]])
#[[Sama-Veda]] (SV)
#[[Atharva-Veda]] (AV)
Of these, the first three were the principal original division, also called ''{{IAST|trayī}}'', "the triple ''{{IAST|Vidyā}}''", that is, "the triple sacred science" of reciting hymns (RV), performing sacrifices (YV), and chanting (SV).<ref>{{Harvnb|MacDonell|2004|p=29-39}}</ref><ref>Witzel, M., "[http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~witzel/canon.pdf The Development of the Vedic Canon and its Schools : The Social and Political Milieu]" in {{Harvnb|Witzel|1997|p=257-348}}</ref> This triplicity is so introduced in the [[Brahmana]]s ([[Shatapatha Brahmana|ShB]], [[Aitareya Brahmana|ABr]] and others), but the Rigveda is the only original work of the three with the other two largely borrowing from it.
 
Thus, the Mantras are properly of three forms:
1. ''Ric'', which are verses of praise in metre, and intended for loud recitation; 2. ''Yajus'', which are in prose, and intended for recitation in a lower tone at sacrifices;
3. ''Sāman'', which are in metre, and intended for chanting at the [[Soma]] ceremonies.
 
The Yajurveda and Samaveda are not so much independent collections of prayers and hymns as special prayer- and hymn-books intended as manuals for the [[Adhvaryu]] and [[Udgatr]] priests respectively.
 
Subsequently, the Atharvaveda was added as the fourth Veda. Its status was probably not completely accepted till after [[Manusmrti]], which often speaks of the three Vedas, calling them ''trayam-brahma-sanātanam'', "the triple eternal Veda". The Atharvaveda like the Rigveda, is a collection of original hymns mixed up with incantations, borrowing little from the Rig and having no direct relation to sacrifices, but supposed by mere recitation to produce long life, to cure diseases, or effect the ruin of enemies.
 
Each of the four Vedas consists of the metrical [[Mantra]] or Samhita and the prose [[Brahmana]] part, giving directions for the detail of the ceremonies at which the Mantras were to be used and explanations of the legends connected with the Mantras. Both these portions are termed [[shruti]], heard but not composed or written down by men. Each of the four Vedas seems to have passed through numerous [[Shakha]]s or schools, giving rise to various recensions of the text. They each have an Index or [[Anukramani]], the principal work of this kind being the general Index or ''{{IAST|Sarvānukramaṇī}}''.
 
=== The Rig-Veda ===
{{main|Rigveda}}
 
The [[Rigveda|Rig-Veda]] Samhita is the oldest significant extant Indian text.<ref>For Rig Veda as the "oldest significant extant Indian text" see: {{Harvnb|Avari|2007|p=77}}.</ref> It is a collection of 1,028 [[Vedic Sanskrit]] [[hymns]] and 10,600 verses in all, organized into ten books (Sanskrit: ''mandalas'').<ref>For 1,028 hymns and 10,600 verses and division into ten mandalas, see: {{Harvnb|Avari|2007|p=77}}.</ref> The hymns are dedicated to [[Rigvedic deities]].<ref>For characterization of content and mentions of deities including Agni, Indra, Varuna, and Surya, see: {{Harvnb|Avari|2007|p=77}}.</ref>
 
The books were composed by sages and poets from different priestly groups over a period of at least 500 years, which Avari dates as 1400 BCE to 900 BCE, if not earlier<ref>For composition over 500 years dated 1400 BCE to 900 BCE, see: {{Harvnb|Avari|2007|p=77}}.</ref> According to Max Müller, based on internal evidence (philological and linguistic), the Rigveda was composed roughly between 1700–1100 BCE (the early [[Vedic period]]) in the [[Punjab region|Punjab]] ([[Sapta Sindhu]]) region of the [[Indian subcontinent]].<ref>India: What Can It Teach Us: A Course of Lectures Delivered Before the University of Cambridge by F. Max Müller; World Treasures of the Library of Congress Beginnings by Irene U. Chambers, Michael S. Roth.</ref> Michael Witzel believes that the Rig Veda must have been composed more or less in the period 1450-1350 BCE.<ref>Witzel, Michael, "Vedas and {{IAST|Upaniṣads}}", in: {{Harvnb|Flood|2003|p=68}}.</ref>
 
There are strong linguistic and cultural similarities between the Rigveda and the early Iranian [[Avesta]], deriving from the [[Proto-Indo-Iranian]] times, often associated with the [[Andronovo culture]]; the earliest horse-drawn chariots were found at Andronovo sites in the [[Sintashta-Petrovka]] cultural area near the [[Ural mountains]] an