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While there are no effective vaccines for any of the six or more species that cause human malaria, drugs have been employed for centuries. In [[1640]], [[Huan del Vego]] first employed the tincture of the [[cinchona]] bark for treating malaria: the native Indians of [[Peru]] and Ecuador had been using it even earlier for treating fevers. Thompson (1650) introduced this "[[Jesuits]]' bark" to [[England]]: its first recorded use there was by Dr John Metford of [[Northampton]] in 1656. [[Morton]] ([[1696]]) presented the first detailed description of the clinical picture of malaria and of its treatment with cinchona. [[Gize]] ([[1816]]) studied the extraction of crystalline [[quinine]] from the cinchona bark and [[Pelletier]] and [[Caventou]] ([[1820]]) in [[France]] extracted pure [[quinine]] [[alkaloid]]s which they named quinine and [[cinchonine]].
 
==درملنه او د درملو مقاومت==
==Treatment and drug resistance==
Attempts to make synthetic antimalarials began in 1891. [[Quinacrine|Atabrine]] was developed in 1928, was used widely throughout the Pacific in World War II but was deeply unpopular because of the yellowing of the skin it caused. In the late 1930s, the Germans developed [[chloroquine]], which went into use in the North African campaigns. [[Mao Zedong]] encouraged Chinese scientists to find new antimalarials after seeing the casualties in the Vietnam War. [[Artemisinin]] was discovered in the 1970s based on a medicine described in China in the year 340. This new drug became known to Western scientists in the late 1980s and early 1990s and is now a standard treatment. In 1976 ''P. falciparum'' was successfully [[Malaria culture|cultured]] ''in vitro'' for the first time which facilitated the development of new drugs substantially.<ref name="Trager1976">{{cite journal | author= Trager W, Jensen JB.| title=Human malaria parasites in continuous culture | journal=Science| year=1976| volume=193(4254)| pages=673-5 | id=PMID 781840}}</ref>
 
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