د "توکمپوهنه" د بڼو تر مېنځ توپير

۳۲۷ تورى ورگډ شول ،  ۱۴ کاله مخکې
د سمون لنډيز پرته
'''Ethnologyتوکمپوهنه''' (fromد theدوه نومونو توکم او پوهنې يو تړنګنوم دی. په انګرېزي ژبه يې اېتنولوژي (د [[Greekيوناني languageژبه|Greekيوناني]] نه ''ethnosاېتنوس'', meaningپه مانا د "peopleتوکم، يا خلک") isبولي. theدا branchپوهنه ofد [[anthropology]]وګړپوهنې thatيوه comparesڅانګه andده analysesاو theپه origins,دې distribution,کې technology,د religion,بېلابېلو language,توکمونو andد socialاصل، structureد ofوېش theسيمې، [[race|racial]]د orتخنيکي [[nation]]alپرمختګ، د ژبې، د دين، د ټولنيز جوړښت او د کلتور د شننو او سره پرتللو divisionsجاج ofاخيستل humanityکېږي.<ref>{{cite book |last= Newman|first= Garfield, et al|authorlink= |coauthors= |title= Echoesد fromتېرمهال the pastازانګې: worldتر ۱۶مې historyپېړۍ toپورې theد 16thنړۍ centuryترايخ|year= 2001|publisher= McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd|location= Toronto|isbn= 0-07-088739-X}}</ref> Compared to [[ethnography]], the study of single groups through direct contact with the culture, ethnology takes the research that ethnographers have compiled and then compares and contrasts different cultures.
 
Among its goals are the reconstruction of [[human history]], and the formulation of [[culture|cultural]] [[universal (metaphysics)|invariants]], such as the alleged [[incest taboo]] and culture change, and the formulation of generalizations about "[[human nature]]", a concept which has been criticized since the 19th century by various philosophers ([[Hegel]], [[Marx]], [[structuralism]], etc.).
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