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Although an antimalarial vaccine is urgently needed, infected individuals never develop a sterilizing (complete) immunity, making the prospects for such a vaccine dim. The parasites live inside cells, where they are largely hidden from the immune response. Infection has a profound effect on the [[immune system]] including immune suppression. [[Dendritic cell]]s suffer a maturation defect following interaction with infected [[erythrocytes]] and become unable to induce protective liver-stage [[immunity (medical)|immunity]]. Infected erythrocytes directly adhere to and activate peripheral blood [[B cells]] from nonimmune donors. The ''var'' gene products, a group of highly expressed surface [[antigen]]s, bind the Fab and Fc fragments of human [[immunoglobulin]]s in a fashion similar to protein A to ''[[Staphylococcus aureus]]'' and this may offer some protection to the parasite from the human immune system. Despite the poor prospects for a fully protective vaccine, it may be possible to develop a vaccine that would reduce the severity of malaria for children living in endemic areas.
 
==مايکروسکوپي بڼه==
==Microscopic appearance==
[[Image:Plasmodium_falciparum_02.jpg|thumb|280px|Blood smear from a ''P. falciparum'' [[Malaria culture|culture]] (K1 strain). Several red blood cells have ring stages inside them. Close to the center there is a schizont and on the left a trophozoite.]]
Among medical professionals, the preferred method to diagnose malaria and determine which species of ''Plasmodium'' is causing the infection is by examination of a [[blood film]] microscopically in a laboratory. Each species has distinctive physical characteristics that are apparent under a [[microscope]]. In ''P. falciparum'', only early [[trophozoite]]s and [[gametocyte]]s are seen in the peripheral blood. It is unusual to see mature trophozoites or [[wiktionary:schizont|schizonts]] in peripheral blood smears as these are usually sequestered in the tissues. The parasitised erythrocytes are not enlarged and it is common to see cells with more than one parasite within them (multiply parasitised erythrocytes). Occasionally, faint comma-shaped red dots are seen on the red cell surface called "Maurer's dots". The comma shaped dots can also appear as pear shaped blotches.
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