د "پلازموډيم فالسيپارم" د بڼو تر مېنځ توپير
Malaria is caused by infection with protozoa of the genus <i>Plasmodium.</i> The name malaria comes from the Italian ''male aria,'' meaning bad air, comes from the linkage suggested by [[Lancisi]] ([]) of [[malaria]] with the poisonous vapours of swamps. The organism itself was first seen by [[Laveran]] on November 6th [] at a military hospital in [[Constantine]], [[Algeria]], when he discovered a microgametocyte exflagellating. [[Manson]] (1894) hypothesised that mosquitoes could transmit malaria - an association made considerably earlier in [[India]], possibly as early as 2000BC. This hypothesis was experimentally confirmed independently by [[Giovanni Battista Grassi]] and [[Ronald Ross]] in []. Grassi ([]) proposed an exerythrocytic stage in the life cycle and this was later confirmed by Short, Garnham, Covell and Shute ([]) who found <i>[[Plasmodium vivax]]</i> in the human liver.▼
Malaria has been a scourge throughout history and has killed more people than all wars and other [[List of Bubonic plague outbreaks|plague]]s combined. It remains globally the most important [[parasitic disease]] of man and claims the lives of more children worldwide than any other infectious disease. Since [] the area of the world exposed to malaria has been halved but in this time two billion more are presently exposed. Morbidity as well as mortality is substantial. Infection rates in children in endemic areas are of the order of 50%: chronic infection has been shown to reduce school scores by up to 15%. Reduction in the incidence of malaria coincides with increased economic output.