The mid [[17th century]] in France saw the development of a refined short novel, the "nouvelle", by such authors as [[Madame de Lafayette]]. In the 1690s, traditional [[fairy tale]]s began to be published (one of the most famous collections was by [[Charles Perrault]]). The appearance of [[Antoine Galland]]'s first modern translation of the ''[[Thousand and One Nights]]'' (or ''Arabian Nights'') (from 1704; another translation appeared in 1710–12) would have an enormous influence on the [[18th century]] European short stories of [[Voltaire]], [[Diderot]] and others.
Modern short stories emerged as their own [[genre]] in the early [[19th century]]. Early examples of short story and short story collections include the [[Brothers Grimm]] ''Fairy Tales'' (1824–1826), [[Nikolai Gogol]]'s ''[[Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka]]'' (1831-1832), [[Edgar Allan Poe]]'s ''The Gold Bug'' (1843),<ref>''The Gold Bug'' by Edgar Allan Poe (New York, NY : Learning Corp. of America, 1979) [http://www.worldcatlibraries.org/oclc/14710019&referer=brief_results OCLC: 14710019]</ref> about a cryptographic treasure map<ref>''The Gold Bug: Treasure Chart, Edgar A. Poe'' by E. Lee Spence, (Sullivan's Island, SC: E. Lee Spence, 1981)</ref> and [[Nathaniel Hawthorne]]'s ''Twice Told Tales'' (1842). In the later part of the 19th century, the growth of print magazines and journals created a strong market demand for short fiction between 3,000 and 15,000 words in length. Among the famous short stories to come out of this time period was "Ward No. 6" by [[Anton Chekhov]].