د "د بابل ځوړند بڼ" د بڼو تر مېنځ توپير

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[[دوتنه:Hanging_Gardens_of_Babylon.gif|left|thumb|450px|left|An د ځوړندو بڼونو لرغونۍ انځور]]
[[دوتنه:Ogrody_semiramidy.jpg|leftt|thumb|left|300px|د سميرامېس, د بڼونو ۲۰مې پېړۍ تفسير]]
'''د بابليونبابل ځوړند بڼونه،بڼونه'''، چې د سمېرامېس ځوړندو بڼونو په نامه هم يادېږي (د [[عراق]] په ننني الهيلا نومي ځاى) كې د لرغونې نړۍ يو له ۷ عجايبو څخه شمېرل كېږي. دا بڼونه د دويم نېبوچايدېېزر لخو په ۶۰۰ مخزېږد كال ودان شوي دي. داسې ښكاري چې نوموړي واكمن دا بڼونه د خپلې ماندينې د خوښۍ لپاره ودان كړي.
 
دا بڼونه د دويم نېبوچايدېېزر لخو په ۶۰۰ مخزېږد كال ودان شوي دي.
داسې ښكاري چې نوموړي واكمن دا بڼونه د خپلې ماندينې د خوښۍ لپاره ودان كړي.
 
 
 
[[gardens to please his wife, [[Amytis of Media]], who longed for the trees and fragrant plants of her homeland.<ref name="FosterGardensofEden">{{cite conference| first =Karen Polinger| last =Foster| authorlink =| title =Gardens of Eden: Flora and Fauna in the Ancient Near East| booktitle =Transformations of Middle Eastern Natural Environments: Legacies and Lessons| pages =320-329| year=1998| publisher =[[Yale University]]| location =[[New Haven]]| url =http://environment.yale.edu/documents/downloads/0-9/103foster.pdf| accessdate =2007-08-11 }}</ref> The gardens were destroyed in an earthquake after the 1st century BC.
 
The lush Hanging Gardens are extensively documented by [[Greeks|Greek]] [[history|historians]] such as [[Strabo]] and [[Diodorus Siculus]]. Through the ages, the location may have been confused with gardens that existed at [[Nineveh]], since tablets from there clearly show gardens. Writings on these tablets describe the possible use of something similar to an [[Archimedes' screw]] as a process of raising the water to the required height.
 
[[دوتنه:Bablyon gardens.jpg|left|thumb|300px|د بابل ځوړند بڼ]]
 
== يوناني سرچينې ==
 
''يوناني تاريخپوه سټاربو'':
<blockquote>
"Babylon, too, lies in a plain; and the circuit of its wall is three hundred and eighty-five [[stadia]]. The thickness of its wall is thirty-two feet; the height thereof between the towers is fifty [[cubits]]; that of the towers is sixty cubits; and the passage on top of the wall is such that four-[[horse]] [[chariots]] can easily pass one another; and it is on this account that this and the hanging garden are called one of the Seven Wonders of the World. The garden is [[quadrangular]] in shape, and each side is four [[plethra]] in length. It consists of [[arched vaults]], which are situated, one after another, on [[checkered]], cube-like [[Foundation (architecture)|foundations]]. The checkered foundations, which are hollowed out, are covered so deep with earth that they admit of the largest of trees, having been constructed of baked brick and [[asphalt]] — the foundations themselves and the vaults and the arches. The ascent to the uppermost [[Terrace (building)|terrace]]-[[roofs]] is made by a stairway; and alongside these stairs there were screws, through which the water was continually conducted up into the garden from the [[Euphrates]] by those appointed for this purpose. For the river, a stadium in width, flows through the middle of the city; and the garden is on the bank of the river."<ref name="geographies">[http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Strabo/16A*.html#1.5 1. Geographies, Book 16, ch 1, § 5]</ref>
</blockquote>
 
''يوناني تاريخپوه ډياډاروس:''
<blockquote>
"The Garden was {{convert|100|ft|m}} long by {{convert|100|ft|m}} wide and built up in tiers so that it resembled a [[theater]]. Vaults had been constructed under the ascending terraces which carried the entire weight of the planted garden; the uppermost vault, which was seventy-five feet high, was the highest part of the garden, which, at this point, was on the same level as the city walls. The roofs of the vaults which supported the garden were constructed of stone beams some sixteen feet long, and over these were laid first a layer of reeds set in thick tar, then two courses of baked brick bonded by cement, and finally a covering of lead to prevent the [[moisture]] in the [[soil]] penetrating the roof. On top of this roof enough [[topsoil]] was heaped to allow the biggest trees to take root. The earth was leveled off and thickly planted with every kind of tree. And since the [[galleries]] projected one beyond the other, where they were sunlit, they contained [[conduits]] for the water which was raised by pumps in great abundance from the river, though no one outside could see it being done."<ref name="wellard">[http://www.plinia.net/wonders/gardens/hg4diodorus.html 2. Wellard, 1972, pp. 156]</ref></blockquote>
 
== نورۍ سرچينې ==
''Scriptores Rerum Alexandrii Magni''
 
<blockquote>
"And then there were the Hanging Gardens. [[Paracleisos]] going up to the top is like climbing a [[mountain]]. Each terrace rises up from the last like the [[syrinx]], the pipes of pan, which are made of several tubes of unequal length. This gives the appearance of a theater. It was flanked by perfectly constructed walls twenty-five feet thick. The galleries were roofed with stone [[balconies]]. Above these there was the first of a bed of [[Phragmites|reeds]] with a great quantity of [[bitumen]], then a double layer of baked bricks set in [[gypsum]], then over that a covering of lead so that moisture from the soil heaped above it would not seep through. The earth was deep enough to contain the roots of the many varieties of trees which fascinated the [[beholder]] with their great size and their beauty. There was also a passage which had pipes leading up to the highest level and machinery for raising water through which great quantities of water were drawn from the river, with none of the process being visible from the [[outside]]."<ref name="magni">[http://www.plinia.net/wonders/gardens/hg4diodorus.html 3. C. W. Müller, Scriptores Rerum Alexandrii Magni, in the Didot edition of Arrian, 1846, 137]</ref></blockquote>
 
== Did they exist? ==
There is some controversy as to whether the Hanging Gardens were an actual creation or a poetic creation due to the lack of documentation of them in the [[chronicles]] of [[Babylon#History|Babylonian history]]. In ancient writings the Hanging Gardens of Babylon were first described by [[Berossus]], a [[Chaldean]] [[priest]] who lived in the late 4th century BC. These accounts were later elaborated on by Greek historians.<ref name="history">''The Hanging Gardens of Babylon The Mysterious Wonder of the Ancient World'' article by Robin Fowler</ref>
 
Recent archaeological excavations of the palace in Iraq have uncovered evidence of a building with vaults and a well nearby. However, the location of the palace complex contradicts where Greek historians placed the Hanging Gardens, which was on the banks of the Euphrates River.<ref name="history"/>
 
However, recently there have been excavations on the banks of the Euphrates River of some substantial 25 meter-thick walls.<ref name="history"/> Also, excavations have shown that there may be some seeds scattered around this area which may suggest that the Gardens were real after all.{{Fact|date=February 2008}}
 
== سرچينې ==
<!--See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Footnotes for an explanation of how to generate footnotes using the <ref(erences/)> tags-->
<div class="references-small"><references /></div>
 
== بهرنۍ تړن ==
{{Commonscat|Hanging Gardens of Babylon}}
* [http://www.authenticwonders.com/Wonders/gardens.html د نړۍ اووه عجايب: د بابل ځونړ بڼونه]
* [http://muse.jhu.edu/cgi-bin/access.cgi?uri=/journals/technology_and_culture/v044/44.1dalley.pdf ''ټكنالوجي او كولتور'' Volume 44, Number 1, January 2003] Dalley, Stephanie. Oleson, John Peter. "Sennacherib, Archimedes, and the Water Screw: The Context of Invention in the Ancient World"
 
{{د لرغونې نړۍ اووه عجايب}}
Hanging Gardens of Babylon
د Wikipedia لخوا
Jump to: ګرځېدنه, لټون
"Hanging Gardens" redirects here. For other uses, see Hanging Gardens (disambiguation).
An ancient depiction of the Hanging Gardens. Irrigation on a man-made slope.
Gardens of Semiramis, 20th century interpretation
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon (also known as Hanging Gardens of Semiramis) (near present-day Al Hillah in Iraq) are considered one of the original Seven Wonders of the World. They were built by Nebuchadnezzar II around 600 BC. He is reported to have constructed the gardens to please his wife, Amytis of Media, who longed for the trees and fragrant plants of her homeland.[1] The gardens were destroyed in an earthquake after the 1st century BC.
The lush Hanging Gardens are extensively documented by Greek historians such as Strabo and Diodorus Siculus. Through the ages, the location may have been confused with gardens that existed at Nineveh, since tablets from there clearly show gardens. Writings on these tablets describe the possible use of something similar to an Archimedes' screw as a process of raising the water to the required height.
نيوليک
[پټول]
• 1 Greek References
• 2 Other references
• 3 Did they exist?
• 4 References
• 5 External links
 
[سمادول] Greek References
The Greek Historian Strabo:
"Babylon, too, lies in a plain; and the circuit of its wall is three hundred and eighty-five stadia. The thickness of its wall is thirty-two feet; the height thereof between the towers is fifty cubits; that of the towers is sixty cubits; and the passage on top of the wall is such that four-horse chariots can easily pass one another; and it is on this account that this and the hanging garden are called one of the Seven Wonders of the World. The garden is quadrangular in shape, and each side is four plethra in length. It consists of arched vaults, which are situated, one after another, on checkered, cube-like foundations. The checkered foundations, which are hollowed out, are covered so deep with earth that they admit of the largest of trees, having been constructed of baked brick and asphalt — the foundations themselves and the vaults and the arches. The ascent to the uppermost terrace-roofs is made by a stairway; and alongside these stairs there were screws, through which the water was continually conducted up into the garden from the Euphrates by those appointed for this purpose. For the river, a stadium in width, flows through the middle of the city; and the garden is on the bank of the river."[2]
The Greek Historian Diodorus:
"The Garden was 100 feet (30 m) long by 100 feet (30 m) wide and built up in tiers so that it resembled a theater. Vaults had been constructed under the ascending terraces which carried the entire weight of the planted garden; the uppermost vault, which was seventy-five feet high, was the highest part of the garden, which, at this point, was on the same level as the city walls. The roofs of the vaults which supported the garden were constructed of stone beams some sixteen feet long, and over these were laid first a layer of reeds set in thick tar, then two courses of baked brick bonded by cement, and finally a covering of lead to prevent the moisture in the soil penetrating the roof. On top of this roof enough topsoil was heaped to allow the biggest trees to take root. The earth was leveled off and thickly planted with every kind of tree. And since the galleries projected one beyond the other, where they were sunlit, they contained conduits for the water which was raised by pumps in great abundance from the river, though no one outside could see it being done."[3]
[سمادول] Other references
 
[[وېشنيزه:د عراق ودانۍ او جوړښتونه]]
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