د "پلازموډيم فالسيپارم" د بڼو تر مېنځ توپير

د سمون لنډيز پرته
| color = khaki
| name = ''Plasmodium falciparum''
| image = Plasmodium_falciparum_01.png
| image_width = 240px
| image_caption = Blood smear of ''Plasmodium falciparum''
| regnum = [[Protista]]
| phylum = [[Apicomplexa]]
| classis = [[Aconoidasida]]
| ordo = [[Haemosporida]]
| familia = [[Plasmodiidae]]
| genus = ''[[Plasmodium]]''
| species = '''''P. falciparum'''''
| binomial = ''Plasmodium falciparum''
| binomial_authority = [[William_Henry_Welch|Welch]], [[1897]]
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'''''پلازموډيم فالسيپارم''''' يو پروټوزوني پرازيت دی، او دا د پلازموډيم هغه يو جنس دی چې په انسانانو کې د ملاريا ناروغي رامنځ ته کوي. دغه پرازيت د انافېلېس د غوماشې په ذريعه انسانانو ته ورځي. پلازموډيم فالسيپاروم د پرازيتي انتاني ناروغيو خطرناک ډول دی او په همدې توګه د پلازموډيم فالسيپارم ملاريا په نړيواله کچه يوه مرګونې انتاني ناروغي ده او د دې ناروغۍ د پېچلتيا کچه ډېره لوړه ده. ددې سره سره دا په انسانانو کې د ملاريايي انتاني ناروغيو ۸۰٪ برخه جوړوي چې د دې ناروغۍ د ۹۰٪ ناروغانو د مړينې سبب ګرځي.
په انسانانو کې د ملاريا ناروغي د پلازموډیم د جنس د يو ډول پروټوزوه په اخته کېدو سره مېنځ ته راځي. د ملاريا نوم د اېټاليوۍ ژبې ''male aria,'' يا مالې اري يا څخه راوتلی دی چې مانا يې بده هوا ده. دا نوم په ۱۷۱۷ زېږيز کال کې د لانسيسي هغه وړانديز پورې اړه لري کله چې هغه د مردارو ډنډونو زهرجن بړاس ته اشاره کوله او پدې اند وه چې د ډنډونو همدا زهرجن بړاس دا ناروغي مېنځ ته راوړي.
The organism itself was first seen by [[Laveran]] on November 6th [[1880]] at a military hospital in [[Constantine]], [[Algeria]], when he discovered a microgametocyte exflagellating. [[Manson]] (1894) hypothesised that mosquitoes could transmit malaria - an association made considerably earlier in [[India]], possibly as early as 2000BC. This hypothesis was experimentally confirmed independently by [[Giovanni Battista Grassi]] and [[Ronald Ross]] in [[1898]]. Grassi ([[1900]]) proposed an exerythrocytic stage in the life cycle and this was later confirmed by Short, Garnham, Covell and Shute ([[1948]]) who found <i>[[Plasmodium vivax]]</i> in the human liver.
Malaria has been a scourge throughout history and has killed more people than all wars and other [[List of Bubonic plague outbreaks|plague]]s combined. It remains globally the most important [[parasitic disease]] of man and claims the lives of more children worldwide than any other infectious disease. Since [[1900]] the area of the world exposed to malaria has been halved but in this time two billion more are presently exposed. Morbidity as well as mortality is substantial. Infection rates in children in endemic areas are of the order of 50%: chronic infection has been shown to reduce school scores by up to 15%. Reduction in the incidence of malaria coincides with increased economic output.
While there are no effective vaccines for any of the six or more species that cause human malaria, drugs have been employed for centuries. In [[1640]], [[Huan del Vego]] first employed the tincture of the [[cinchona]] bark for treating malaria: the native Indians of [[Peru]] and Ecuador had been using it even earlier for treating fevers. Thompson (1650) introduced this "[[Jesuits]]' bark" to [[England]]: its first recorded use there was by Dr John Metford of [[Northampton]] in 1656. [[Morton]] ([[1696]]) presented the first detailed description of the clinical picture of malaria and of its treatment with cinchona. [[Gize]] ([[1816]]) studied the extraction of crystalline [[quinine]] from the cinchona bark and [[Pelletier]] and [[Caventou]] ([[1820]]) in [[France]] extracted pure [[quinine]] [[alkaloid]]s which they named quinine and [[cinchonine]].
==درملنه او د درملو مقاومت==
Attempts to make synthetic antimalarials began in 1891. [[Quinacrine|Atabrine]] was developed in 1928, was used widely throughout the Pacific in World War II but was deeply unpopular because of the yellowing of the skin it caused. In the late 1930s, the Germans developed [[chloroquine]], which went into use in the North African campaigns. [[Mao Zedong]] encouraged Chinese scientists to find new antimalarials after seeing the casualties in the Vietnam War. [[Artemisinin]] was discovered in the 1970s based on a medicine described in China in the year 340. This new drug became known to Western scientists in the late 1980s and early 1990s and is now a standard treatment. In 1976 ''P. falciparum'' was successfully [[Malaria culture|cultured]] ''in vitro'' for the first time which facilitated the development of new drugs substantially.<ref name="Trager1976">{{cite journal | author= Trager W, Jensen JB.| title=Human malaria parasites in continuous culture | journal=Science| year=1976| volume=193(4254)| pages=673-5 | id=PMID 781840}}</ref>
Resistance to antimalarial drugs, first to chloroquine and then to others was first noticed in the 1950s and has since spread all over the world. There is a real-time [[polymerase chain reaction|PCR]] test<ref>{{cite journal | author=Farcas GA, Soeller R, Zhong K, Zahirieh A, Kain KC. | title=Real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the rapid detection and characterization of chloroquine-resistant ''Plasmodium falciparum'' malaria in returned travelers | journal=Clin Infect Dis | year=2006 | volume=42 | pages=622&ndash;7 |id=PMID 16447106}}</ref> available to look for the K76T<ref>{{cite journal | author=Djimde A, Doumbo OK, Cortese JF, ''et al.'' | title=A molecular marker for chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria | journal=N Engl J Med | year=2001 | volume=344 | pages=257&ndash;263 | issue=4 }}</ref> mutation in PfCRT which results in chloroquine resistance in ''P. falciparum'', but this is not yet commercially available.
Although an antimalarial vaccine is urgently needed, infected individuals never develop a sterilizing (complete) immunity, making the prospects for such a vaccine dim. The parasites live inside cells, where they are largely hidden from the immune response. Infection has a profound effect on the [[immune system]] including immune suppression. [[Dendritic cell]]s suffer a maturation defect following interaction with infected [[erythrocytes]] and become unable to induce protective liver-stage [[immunity (medical)|immunity]]. Infected erythrocytes directly adhere to and activate peripheral blood [[B cells]] from nonimmune donors. The ''var'' gene products, a group of highly expressed surface [[antigen]]s, bind the Fab and Fc fragments of human [[immunoglobulin]]s in a fashion similar to protein A to ''[[Staphylococcus aureus]]'' and this may offer some protection to the parasite from the human immune system. Despite the poor prospects for a fully protective vaccine, it may be possible to develop a vaccine that would reduce the severity of malaria for children living in endemic areas.
==مايکروسکوپي بڼه==
[[Image:Plasmodium_falciparum_02.jpg|thumb|280px|Blood smear from a ''P. falciparum'' [[Malaria culture|culture]] (K1 strain). Several red blood cells have ring stages inside them. Close to the center there is a schizont and on the left a trophozoite.]]
Among medical professionals, the preferred method to diagnose malaria and determine which species of ''Plasmodium'' is causing the infection is by examination of a [[blood film]] microscopically in a laboratory. Each species has distinctive physical characteristics that are apparent under a [[microscope]]. In ''P. falciparum'', only early [[trophozoite]]s and [[gametocyte]]s are seen in the peripheral blood. It is unusual to see mature trophozoites or [[wiktionary:schizont|schizonts]] in peripheral blood smears as these are usually sequestered in the tissues. The parasitised erythrocytes are not enlarged and it is common to see cells with more than one parasite within them (multiply parasitised erythrocytes). Occasionally, faint comma-shaped red dots are seen on the red cell surface called "Maurer's dots". The comma shaped dots can also appear as pear shaped blotches.
== پلازموډيم او انساني جينوم ==
In the 50,000 years since ''Plasmodium'' first infected humans, these parasites have altered the human genome in a multitude of ways. [[Haldane]] (1949) suggested that [[Sickle-cell disease]] could offer some protection to malaria. This hypothesis has since been confirmed and has been extended to [[hemoglobin C]] and [[hemoglobin E]], abnormalities in [[ankyrin]] and [[spectrin]], ([[ovalocytosis]] , [[elliptocytosis]]), in [[glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency]] and [[pyruvate kinase deficiency]], loss of the Gerbich antigen ([[glycophorin C]]) and the [[Duffy antigen]] on the [[erythrocytes]], [[thalassemia]]s and variations in the [[major histocompatibility antigen]] classes 1 and 2 and [[CD32]] and [[CD36]].
In 1995 a consortium - the malaria [[genome]] project (MGP) - was set up to sequence the genome of <i>P. falciparum</i>. The genome of the parasite [[mitochondrion]] was reported in 1995, that of the [[plastid]] (apicoplast) in 1996, and the sequence of the first nuclear [[chromosome]] (Chromosome 2) in 1998. The sequence of Chromosome 3 was reported in 1999 and the entire genome on 3rd October 2002. The ~24 megabase genome is extremely AT rich (~80%) and is organised into 14 chromosomes: just over 5300 genes were described.
== Evolution and ''Plasmodium falciparum'' ==
Surprisingly, malaria parasites harbor a plastid similar to plant [[chloroplast]]s, which they acquired by engulfing (or being invaded by) a [[eukaryotic]] alga, and retaining the algal plastid as a distinctive organelle encased within four membranes (see [[endosymbiotic theory]]). The [[apicomplexa]]n plastid, or [[apicoplast]], is an essential organelle, thought to be involved in the synthesis of lipids and several other compounds, and provides an attractive target for antimalarial drug development, particularly in light of the emergence of parasites resistant to chloroquine and other existing antimalarial agents.
The protist, ''Plasmodium falciparum'', has evolved in more recent times. Most strains of malaria can be treated with chloroquine, however ''P. falciparum'' has developed resistance to this treatment. In addition the strain can be treated with a combination of quinine and tetracycline. There are strains of ''P. falciparum'' that have grown resistant to this treatment as well. Different strains of ''P. falciparum'' have grown resistant to different treatments. Often the resistance of the strain depends on where it was contracted. Many cases of malaria that come from parts of the Caribbean and west of the Panama Canal as well as the Middle East and Egypt can often be treated with chloroquin, since they have not yet developed resistance. Nearly all cases contracted in Africa, India, and southeast Asia have grown resistant to this medication and there have been cases in Thailand and Cambodia in which the strain has been resistant to nearly all treatments. Often the strain grows resistant to the treatment in areas where the use is not as tightly regulated.
''Plasmodium falciparum'' is often used an example for [[evolution]]. Since [[sickle-cell disease]] carriers are relatively resistant to malaria, and people from malaria-stricken countries are much more likely to have the sickle-cell trait, it is often given as an example to show how [[mutations]] are not inherently good or bad, but in different environments could have either negative or positive effects. Thus, if one lives in a malaria-stricken part of the world, natural selection gives a net advantage to having the sickle-cell trait. Other hemoglobin polymorphisms, such as thalassemias and hemoglobin C are also suspected to have arisen as a genetic means to reduce the burden of malaria.
<div class="references-small"><references/></div>
==نورې سرچينې او لوستنې==
=== کتنه ===
*[http://www.tulane.edu/~wiser/protozoology/notes/malaria.html پېژندنه]
*[http://www.ratsteachmicro.com/Malaria_notes/HCOE_CAI_Review_Notes_Malaria.htm کتنه]
*[http://www.tulane.edu/~wiser/malaria/cmb.html د ملاريا ژونپوهنه]
*[http://www.roche.nl/ziektebeeld/malaria/malaria2.gif د ژوندڅرخ کارتون]
=== د وينې سلايډونه ===
*[http://home.austarnet.com.au/wormman/paraimg/pfalcipt.jpg Blood forms]
*[http://home.austarnet.com.au/wormman/paraimg/pfalcipm.jpg Blood forms]
*[http://www.yamagiku.co.jp/pathology/photo/photo206-7.htm Blood forms]
*[http://www.yamagiku.co.jp/pathology/photo/photo206-8.htm Blood forms]
*[http://www.yamagiku.co.jp/pathology/photo/photo206-1.htm Multiple blood forms]
*[http://home.austarnet.com.au/wormman/paraimg/pfalcipg.jpg Female gametocyte]
*[http://medschool.sums.ac.ir/users/parasito/Blood%20and%20tissue%20protozoa/Plasmodium%20%20falciparum%20gametocyte2.JPG Female gametocyte]
*[http://www.hh.schule.de/ghb/new_page/projekte/infektionskrankheiten/group5/malariapic.jpg Male gametocyte exflagelating]
*[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=10775264&dopt=Abstract ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
=== د ناروغۍ پېښليک ===
*[http://www.med-chem.com/Para/Prob%20of%20Month/Prob%20of%20Month%2038%20February%2004.htm ۱ پېښه]
*[http://www.med-chem.com/Para/Prob%20of%20Month/Prob%20of%20Month%2031%20July%2003.htm ۲ پېښه]
*[http://www.yamagiku.co.jp/pathology/case/case206.htm ۳ پېښه]
*[http://www.yamagiku.co.jp/pathology/case/case129.htm ۴ پېښه]
=== د <i>پلازموډيم فالسيپارم</i> له کبله نورې ناروغۍ===
*[http://www.vh.org/adult/provider/pathology/CNSInfDisR2/Text/165.html Gross pathology]
*[http://www.neuroanatomy.hpg.ig.com.br/Histopathology%20of%20malaria%20of%20brain.%20Mature%20schizontsss_2.jpg Low power H & E stain]
*[http://www.neuroanatomy.hpg.ig.com.br/Histopathology%20of%20malaria%20of%20brain.%20Mature%20schizonts._2.jpg High power H & E stain showing parasite adherence to the vessel walls]
*[http://www.yamagiku.co.jp/pathology/photo/photo206-2.htm Gross pathology]
*[http://oac.med.jhmi.edu/Pathology/Idmicro/Parasite/037A_Full.html Low power H & E]
*[http://www.yamagiku.co.jp/pathology/photo/photo206-3.htm Smear preparation]
*[http://www.yamagiku.co.jp/pathology/photo/photo206-4.htm Smear preparation]
*[http://www.yamagiku.co.jp/pathology/photo/photo206-5.htm Low power H & E]
*[http://medschool.sums.ac.ir/users/parasito/Blood%20and%20tissue%20protozoa/Malaria-schizont%20in%20liver500X.JPG High power H & E]
*[http://www.med.niigata-u.ac.jp/npa/Lectures/Images/Slides/MN/07MN_medulla_L.gif Low power H & E]
*[http://www.med.niigata-u.ac.jp/npa/Lectures/Images/Slides/MN/01MN_Ex_L.gif High power H & E]
*[http://www.med.niigata-u.ac.jp/npa/Lectures/Images/Slides/MN/05MN_Ex_HE3_L.gif High power H & E]
*[http://www.med.niigata-u.ac.jp/npa/Lectures/Images/Slides/MN/02MN_Ex_PAM1_L.gif Membrane stain]
*[http://www.med.niigata-u.ac.jp/npa/Lectures/Images/Slides/MN/06MN_Ex_PAM3_L.gif Membrane stain]
===''Plasmodium falciparum'' genome data ===
*[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=12368864 The malaria genome paper in the journal Nature]
*[http://plasmodb.org/ The Plasmodium Genome Database]
*[http://www.genedb.org/genedb/malaria GeneDB Plasmodium falciparum]
*[http://plasmodb.org/links.shtml Other genome projects and additional information]
*[http://www.wehi.edu.au/MalDB-www/who.html Genome]
[[وېشنيزه:پرازيتي ناروغۍ]]