د "گواتمالا" د بڼو تر مېنځ توپير

۱۹٬۴۲۷ ټکی لري شوه ،  ۹ کاله مخکې
د سمون لنډيز پرته
و (r2.7.1) (روباټ زیاتول: su:Guatémala)
'''ګواتمالا''' چې په رسمي توګه '''د ګواتمالا ولسمشریزه''' ده په منځنی امریکا کې پروت یو هیواد دی.
{{ژباړل}}
{{هېواد-مالوماتبکس
|native_name = República de Guatemala
|common_name = Guatemala
|image_flag = Flag of Guatemala.svg
|image_coat = GUAcoat.jpg
|image_map = LocationGuatemala.png
|national_motto = ''El Pais De La Eterna Primavera''<br /> ([[English language|English]]: "The Country of The Eternal Spring")
|national_anthem = [[Guatemala Feliz]]
|official_languages = [[Spanish language|Spanish]] (Official)<br />(23 indigenous languages have been officially recognised, but all transactions are in Spanish)
|capital = [[Guatemala City]]
|latd=14 |latm=38 |latNS=N |longd=90 |longm=33 |longEW=W
|largest_city = [[Guatemala City]]
|government_type = <small>Constitutional democratic republic</small>
|leader_titles = [[President of Guatemala|President]]
|leader_names = [[Óscar Berger]]
|area_rank = 103rd
|area_magnitude = 1 E11
|area= 108,890
|areami²= 42,042 <!-- Do not remove per [[WP:MOSNUM]]-->
|percent_water = 0.4
|population_estimate = 14,655,189
|population_estimate_rank = 70th
|population_estimate_year = July 2005
|population_census =
|population_census_year =
|population_density = 134.6
|population_densitymi² = 348.6 <!-- Do not remove per [[WP:MOSNUM]]-->
|population_density_rank = 55th
|GDP_PPP = $62.78 billion
|GDP_PPP_rank = 71st
|GDP_PPP_year= 2005
|GDP_PPP_per_capita = $4,300
|GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 143rd
|sovereignty_type = [[Independence]]
|established_events = from [[Spain]]
|established_dates = [[September 15]], [[1821]]
|HDI = 0.663
|HDI_rank = 117th
|HDI_year = 2003
|HDI_category = <font color="#FFCC00">medium</font>
|currency = [[Quetzal (currency)|Quetzal]]
|currency_code = GTQ
|country_code =
|time_zone =
|utc_offset = -6
|time_zone_DST =
|utc_offset_DST =
|cctld = [[.gt]]
|calling_code = 502
|footnotes =
}}
The '''Republic of Guatemala''' ([[Spanish language|Spanish]]: ''República de Guatemala'', [[International Phonetic Alphabet|IPA]]: {{IPA|[re'puβlika ðe gwate'mala]}}) is a country in [[Central America]], in the south of the continent of [[North America]], situated between the [[Pacific Ocean]] and the [[Caribbean Sea]].
It is bordered by [[مکسيکو]] to the north, [[Belize]] to the northeast, and [[هندوراس]] and [[اېلسلوادور]] to the southeast.
 
== History ==
{{main|History of Guatemala}}
From the [[3rd century]] [[Anno Domini|BC]] to the [[11th century]] [[Anno Domini|AD]], the lowlands area of the [[el Petén|Petén]] and [[Izabal]] regions of Guatemala were inhabited by several indigenous states of Mayan ethnicity. There were also many tribal groups of the K'iche ethnia on the central highlands. [[Alta Verapaz]] is known for the fact that, after failing to conquer it by the sword the Spanish entered by the Church, with missionaries who defended the Indians from the cruel treatments of the Spanish army. Many Pre-Columbian Mayan books were lost due to the policy of the Spaniards during the colonial period of burning them. However, several survive, including: The "[[Popol Vuh]]", "Anales de los Kakchiqueles", and "Chilam Balam", books that were discovered and preserved by Spanish missionary friars. The name "Goathemala" was given by the Spanish conquistadores to this land, which derives from indigenous words that mean "Land of many trees".
 
During the Spanish colonial period, Guatemala was a [[Captaincy General]] (Capitanía General de Goathemala) of Spain. It extended from the Soconusco region - located in what is now the southern part of Mexico (states of [[Chiapas]], [[Tabasco]], [[Quintana Roo]], and [[Yucatan]]) - to [[Costa Rica]]. From a political point of view, this region was not as rich in mineral resources (gold and silver) as Mexico and Peru were. Therefore, it did not have the same importance as those two Viceroyalties had. Its main products were [[sugarcane]], [[cocoa]], and añil (dye obtained from [[Indigo dye|indigo]] plant to dye textiles), and also precious woods that were used in famous artworks for churches and palaces in Spain.
 
Tired of being forced to trade exclusively with Spain, the Guatemalan elite declared independence of Spain in [[September 15]], [[1821]]. At that time, the Guatemalan Republic included the [[Soconusco]] region, as well as what are now the countries of [[El Salvador]], [[Honduras]], [[Nicaragua]], and [[Costa Rica]]. Such a big country had a mere 1.5 million habitants, mostly concentrated in the urban centers of the young Republic.
 
However, in 1822, the province of El Salvador convinced the other Guatemalan provinces to join the [[Mexican Empire]], an idea created by [[Agustin Iturbide]]. This Empire was short-lived, however, and a year later Guatemala separated itself from Mexico after Iturbide was forced to abdicate and his empire collapsed. As a result of this annexation, Guatemala lost the Chiapas and Soconusco regions, which are now part of Mexico. After this, the Guatemalan provinces formed the [[United Provinces of Central America]], also referred to as the Central American Federation (Federacion de Estados Centroamericanos). The Capital City remained [[Guatemala City]], which to this day continues to be the biggest and most modern urban center in the entire Central American region.
 
A politically unstable period followed, aggravated by the collapse of the world market for añil (indigo), main export product from the region to Europe. This resulted in each province separating itself from the Federation, beginning with the province of Costa Rica. This confederation fell apart in [[1838]] to [[1840]], and Guatemala became an independent nation.
 
Guatemala has long claimed all or part of the territory of neighboring [[Belize]], formerly part of the Spanish colony. However, [[Great Britain]] occupied this territory, and Belize remains English-speaking to this day. While Guatemala recognized Belize's independence in [[1991]], the territorial dispute between them has not yet been finalized. Negotiations are currently underway under the auspices of the [[Organization of American States]] to conclude the dispute. For details, see: [http://www.asil.org/insights/insigh59.htm], and the OAS page [http://www.oas.org/main/main.asp?sLang=E&sLink=http://www.oas.org/oaspage/searchform.asp].
 
Guatemalan history has been marked by the Cold War between the [[USA]] and the [[USSR]]. The [[Central Intelligence Agency]], supported by a small group of Guatemalan citizens, orchestrated the overthrow of the [[democratic socialist]] freely-elected Guatemalan government in [[1954]]. This was known as [[Operation PBSUCCESS]] and led to over thirty years of unrest in the nation during which over 200,000 Guatemalans were killed (students, workers, professionals and opossitors of all political tendencies during the first 10 years of the repression and thuosands of mostly Mayan Indians in the last phases of the conflict), more than 450 Mayan villages were destroyed, and over one million people became refugees. This is considered to be one of the worst [[ethnic cleansing]]s in modern Latin America. Contributing reasons include US support of every successive, mostly non-democratic and military governments in Guatemala. From the 1950s until the 1990s, the U.S. directly supported Guatemala's army by supplying it with combatant training, weaponry, and money. The U.S. sent the [[United States Army Special Forces|Green Berets]] to Guatemala to transform its Army into a "modern counter-insurgency force," making their army the most powerful and sophisticated in Central America.
 
Further involvement of the CIA in Guatemala included the training of 5,000 anti-[[Fidel Castro|Castro]] [[Cuba]]ns and airstrips in its territory for what would become the failed [[Bay of Pigs Invasion]].
 
[[1996]] marked the end of a bloody 36-year war with the guerrilla [[Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity]] (URNG). The peace accord was negotiated between the guerrillas and the government of President [[Álvaro Arzú]]. Since then, the country has enjoyed successive democractic elections, most recently in [[2003]]. However, corruption is still rampant throughout all levels of government. A huge cache of National Police files discovered in December of [[2005]] revealed methods of public security officials to quell unrest of citizens during the civil war [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4499354.stm].
 
Militarily, the Guatemalan army could not defeated the URNG, more so when the guerillas had acces to more sofisticated weapons and the conflict ended in a stalemate. The army controled the urban centers and the URNG dominated the countryside. Due to the rampant torture, dissapearences, and the policy of "scorched earth" and many other brutal methods the military used, the country became a pariah state internationally. In [[1992]], the [[Nobel Peace Prize]] was awarded to [[Rigoberta Menchú]], an indigenous human rights activist, for her efforts to bring international attention to the government-sponsored [[genocide]] against the indigenous population.
 
== Politics ==
''Main article: [[Politics of Guatemala]]''
 
Guatemala's [[unicameral]] parliament, the ''[[Congress of Guatemala|Congreso de la República]]'' (Congress of the Republic) with 158 seats, is elected every four years, concurrently with the presidential elections.
The [[President of Guatemala]] acts as the head of state and head of government.
In his executive tasks, he is assisted by a cabinet of ministers, which he appoints.
 
''See also:'' [[Guatemala election, 2003]]
 
== Administrative Divisions ==
''Main article: [[Departments of Guatemala]]''
 
[[دوتنه:GuatemalaProvs.PNG|right|250px|thumb|''The departments of Guatemala'']]
Guatemala is divided into 22 [[department]]s (''departamentos'') and sub-divided into about 331 municipalities (''municipios'').
 
The [[Departments of Guatemala|departments]] include:
<table><td><ol>
<li>[[Alta Verapaz]]
<li>[[Baja Verapaz]]
<li>[[Chimaltenango department|Chimaltenango]]
<li>[[Chiquimula department|Chiquimula]]
<li>[[El Petén]]
<li>[[El Progreso department|El Progreso]]
<li>[[El Quiché]]
<li>[[Escuintla department|Escuintla]]
<li>[[Guatemala department|Guatemala]]
<li>[[Huehuetenango department|Huehuetenango]]
<li>[[Izabal Department|Izabal]]
</td></ol><td><ol start=12>
<li>[[Jalapa department|Jalapa]]
<li>[[Jutiapa department|Jutiapa]]
<li>[[Quetzaltenango department|Quetzaltenango]]
<li>[[Retalhuleu department|Retalhuleu]]
<li>[[Sacatepéquez]]
<li>[[San Marcos department|San Marcos]]
<li>[[Santa Rosa department, Guatemala|Santa Rosa]]
<li>[[Sololá department|Sololá]]
<li>[[Suchitepequez department|Suchitepequez]]
<li>[[Totonicapán department|Totonicapán]]
<li>[[Zacapa department|Zacapa]]
</td></ol></table>
 
== Geography ==
[[دوتنه:Gt-map.jpg|framed|Map of Guatemala]]
''Main article: [[Geography of Guatemala]]''
 
[[وېشنيزه:ګواتمالا ]]
Except for the south coastal area, and the vast lowlands of the [[Peten]] in the north, Guatemala is mountainous, with a hot tropical climate – more temperate in the highlands, and drier in the easternmost departments.
All of the major cities are situated in the southern half of the country; the major cities are the capital [[Guatemala City]], [[Quetzaltenango]] and [[Escuintla]].
The largest lake [[Lago de Izabal]] is situated close to the Caribbean coast.
Guatemala's location on the Atlantic Ocean has left it a target for [[hurricane]]s, including [[Hurricane Mitch]] in 1998 and [[Hurricane Stan]] in 2005, in which upwards of 1,500 died.
 
== Economy ==
''Main article: [[Economy of Guatemala]]''
 
The [[agricultural sector]] accounts for one quarter of [[Gross Domestic Product|GDP]], two-thirds of exports, and half of the labor force.
[[Coffee]], [[sugar]], and [[banana]]s are the main products.
Manufacturing and construction account for one-fifth of GDP.
 
The signing of the peace accords in December [[1996]], which ended 36 years of civil war, removed a major obstacle to foreign investment.
In [[1998]], [[Hurricane Mitch]] caused relatively little damage to Guatemala compared to its neighbors.
 
Remaining challenges include beefing up government revenues, negotiating further assistance from international donors, and increasing the efficiency and openness of both government and private financial operations.
 
In 2005, after massive street protests, Guatemala's congress ratified the [[Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement|Dominican Republic - Central American Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA)]] between several Central American nations and the [[United States of America|U.S.]]. However, owing to the extensive damage and economic impacts caused by [[Hurricane Stan]] in October [[2005]], the government is in period of stand-by analysis and acceptance as it contemplates how it will be possible to implement the mechanisms and stipulations of the DR-CAFTA by the due starting date in February of [[2006]].
 
== Demographics ==
''Main article: [[Demographics of Guatemala]]''
 
According to the CIA [[World Fact Book]], [[Mestizo]]s, known as [[Ladino]]s in Central America, (mixed [[Indigenous peoples of the Americas|Amerindian]]-Spanish) and a small population of Europeans (primarily of Spanish, German, English, Italian, and Scandinavian descent) comprise 60% of the population and Amerindians comprise approximately 40% of the population ([[K'iche]] (Quiché) 9.1%, [[Kaqchikel]] 8.4%, [[Mam]] 7.9%, [[Q'eqchi]] 6.3%, other Mayan 8.6%, indigenous non-Mayan 0.2%, other 0.1%).
 
CIA World Fact Book - http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/gt.html
 
Though most of Guatemala's population is rural, [[urbanization]] is accelerating. [[Guatemala City]] (approx. 3 million residents) is expanding at a rapid rate, and [[Quetzaltenango]], the second largest city (approx. 250 thousand residents), is growing as well. Rural to urban migration is fueled by a combination of government neglect of the countryside, low farm gate prices, oppressive labor conditions on rural plantations, the high concentration of arable land in the hands of a few wealthy families, and the (often unrealistic) perception of higher wages in the city. Generally impoverished farmers move to the outskirts of the city in precarious dwellings on the slopes of ravines. In addition, since 2001 the US has been deporting at a high rate. Many Guatemalans return from Southern [[California]] after joining youth [[gangs]]. [[Crime]] is epidemic in Guatemala City and is a growing concern in Quetzaltenango and other smaller cities.
 
The predominant religion is [[Roman Catholicism]], into which many indigenous Guatemalans have incorporated traditional forms of worship. [[Protestantism]] and traditional [[Maya]]n religions are practiced by an estimated 33% and 1% of the population, respectively.
 
== Language ==
Although the official language is [[Spanish language|Spanish]], it is not universally understood among the indigenous population; 23 distinct [[Mayan language]]s are still spoken, especially in rural areas.
 
The Peace Accords signed in December [[1996]] provide for the translation of some official documents and voting materials into several indigenous languages (see summary of main substantive accords).
 
Roman Catholicism was the dominant religion during the colonial era. However, Protestant denominations have increased markedly in recent decades, especially under the brutal dictatorship of evangelical pastor General Efraín Ríos Montt. Around 1 in 3 Guatemalans are Protestant chiefly Evangelical, and Pentecostal. The remainder are Roman Catholic.
 
Practice of traditional Mayan religions is increasing as a result of the cultural protections established in the peace accords. The government has instituted a policy of providing altars at every Mayan ruin found in the country so that traditional ceremonies may be performed there.
 
The Jewish population numbers about 1,000.
 
The current Roman-Catholic leader of Guatemala is Mons. Álvaro Leonel Ramazzini Imeri.
 
== Education ==
The government runs a number of public elementary and secondary-level schools. These schools are theoretically tuition-free. However, the cost of uniforms, books, supplies, and transportation limits their availability to the lower classes. Also, many families of the middle and upper-class send their children to private schools throughout the country. The country also has one public university ([[Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala]]), and 7 private ones (see [[List of universities in Guatemala]]).
 
== Culture ==
''Main article: [[Culture of Guatemala]]''
 
Influences of the Maya and the Spanish colonists are strong throughout Guatemala. In the cities, European influence (especially [[German culture|German]]) is well evidenced. Much of the [[clothing]] and [[food]] is still made in the traditional Mayan way in small villages in the highlands, and many Mayan ruins are scattered around the countryside. Along the small [[Caribbean]] coast, there are influences of [[Africa]]n culture in the religious ceremonial songs, dances and food. The Afro-Guatemalan population, known as [[Garifuna]]s are descendants of escaped slaves who settled along the Caribbean coast of Central America.
 
''See also:''
 
* [[Music of Guatemala]]
* [[List of Latin American artists]]
 
== Miscellaneous topics ==
{{sisterlinks|Guatemala}}
 
* [[Communications in Guatemala]]
* [[Foreign relations of Guatemala]]
* [[List of national parks of Guatemala]]
* [[List of places in Guatemala]]
* [[List of Guatemalans|List of famous Guatemalans]]
* [[Military of Guatemala]]
* [[Plan de Sánchez massacre]]
* [[Transportation in Guatemala]]
 
== External links ==
* [http://www.fco.gov.uk/servlet/Front?pagename=OpenMarket/Xcelerate/ShowPage&c=Page&cid=1007029394365&a=KCountryProfile&aid=1020262398293 UK Foreign Office Country Profile for Guatemala]
* [http://lakjer.dk/mikkel/spanish.shtml Spanish Schools in Guatemala]
* http://www.casaxelaju.com Volunteer work, internship and Spanish programs
* [http://www.congreso.gob.gt/ Congreso de la República] – Congress of the Republic of Guatemala (in Spanish)
* [http://www.oj.gob.gt Organismo Judicial de Guatemala] Judicial Branch of Guatemala (in Spanish)
* [http://www.guatemala.gob.gt/ Gobierno de Guatemala] Guatemalan Government Page(in Spanish)
* [http://www.insivumeh.gob.gt/ Instituto de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Metereologia E Hidrologia] Guatemala's Institute Of Seismology, Vulcanology, Metereology And Hydrology
* [http://www.inguat.gob.gt Guatemala Institute of Tourism].
* [http://earthfromspace.photoglobe.info/spc_guatemala_yucatan.html Guatemala from Space]
* [http://www.mayaspirit.com.gt/ Maya Spirit] – (in Spanish)
* [http://www.roseeducation.org The Rose Education Foundation]
* [http://web.amnesty.org/report2004/gtm-summary-eng Amnesty International Annual Report 2004 – Guatemala]
* [http://www.photoglobe.info/bl_guatemala/ PhotoGlobe - Guatemala] - georeferenced photos of Guatemala
* [http://www.nisgua.org NISGUA] Network in Solidarity with the People of Guatemala
* [http://www.guatemalabelize.com ] News and Project information on Guatemalan-Belizean Confidence-building in language activities, photos, news articles and official country links.
* [http://www.confidence2.org ] FCO News and Reports on UK Confidence-Building Project information for Guatemala and Belize.
* [http://www.losttrails.com/pages/Images/images21.html color photography of Guatemala - ]
* [http://www.atitlan.net Pictures of Guatemala]
* [http://www.atitlan.net/guatemala-map.htm Guatemala Map]
 
{{Central_America}}
 
{{North_America}}
 
[[وېشنيزه:Central American countries]]
[[وېشنيزه:Guatemala| ]]
 
[[ace:Guatemala]]
۷٬۷۹۰

سمونې