د "ماوریتوس" د بڼو تر مېنځ توپير

۲۱٬۶۹۲ ټکی لري شوه ،  ۹ کاله مخکې
د سمون لنډيز پرته
و (r2.7.1) (روباټ زیاتول: su:Mauritius)
'''ماوریتوس''' چې په رسمي توګه '''د ماوریتوس ولسمشریزه''' ده د هند د اقیانوس په سویل لویدیځې څنډې کې پروت یو هیواد دی.
{{هېواد-مالوماتبکس
|ولسي نوم = ''Republik Moris<br />République de Maurice''
|اوږد دوديز نوم = د ماوريتوس جمهوريت
|ټولګړی نوم = ماوريتوس
|image_flag = Flag of Mauritius.svg
|image_coat = Coat of arms of Mauritius.svg
|image =Port Louis Skyline.JPG
|image_map = Mauritius island location.svg
|ولسي ناره = ''"Stella Clavisque Maris Indici"''{{Spaces|2}}<small>([[Latin]])<br />"Star and Key of the Indian Ocean"</small>
|ولسي ترانه = ''[[Motherland (anthem)|Motherland]]''
|رسمي ژبې = [[English language|English]]<ref name="article49"/><ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.gov.mu/portal/site/abtmtius/menuitem.42f3149f267522984d57241079b521ca| title=Republic of Mauritius, Government Portal (Mauritius)}}</ref>
|پلازمېنه = [[Port Louis]]
|languages_type = [[Vernacular]]
|ژبې= [[Mauritian Creole]], [[Mauritian Bhojpuri]], [[French language|French]], [[English language|English]],
|وګړنوم = Mauritian
|latd=20 |latm=10 |latNS=S |longd=57 |longm=31 |longEW=E
|largest_city and capital = [[Port Louis]]
|د حکومت بڼه = [[Parliamentary republic]]
|leader_title1 = [[List of Presidents of Mauritius|President]]
|leader_name1 = [[Sir Anerood Jugnauth]]
|leader_title2 = [[List of Prime Ministers of Mauritius|Prime Minister]]
|leader_name2 = [[Navin Ramgoolam]]<br />
|legislature = [[National Assembly of Mauritius|Parliament]]
|Cabinet = [[Cabinet of Ministers of Mauritius|Cabinet of Ministers]]<br />[[Ptr-MSM-PMSD]]
|lower_house = [[National Assembly of Mauritius|National Assembly]]
|sovereignty_type = [[Independence]]
|sovereignty_note = from the [[United Kingdom]]
|established_event1 = Date
|established_date1 = 12 March 1968
|established_event2 = Republic
|established_date2 = 12 March 1992
|area_rank = 179th
|area_magnitude = 1 E9
|area_km2 = 2,040
|area_sq_mi = 787 <!--Do not remove per [[WP:MOSNUM]]-->
|percent_water = 0.05
|population_estimate = 1,288,000<ref name="unpop">{{cite paper | url=http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/wpp2008_text_tables.pdf | title=World Population Prospects, Table A.1| version=2008 revision | format=PDF | publisher=United Nations | author=Department of Economic and Social Affairs
Population Division | year=2009 | accessdate= 2009-03-12}}</ref>
|population_estimate_rank = 151st
|population_estimate_year = 2008
|population_census = 1,179,137
|population_census_year = 2000
|population_density_km2 = 631.4
|population_density_sq_mi = 1,636.5 <!--Do not remove per [[WP:MOSNUM]]-->
|population_density_rank = 18th
|GDP_PPP = $16.050 billion<ref name="imf2">{{cite web |url=http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2010/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2007&ey=2010&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=684&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=51&pr.y=4 |title=Mauritius |publisher=International Monetary Fund |accessdate=2010-04-21}}</ref>
|GDP_PPP_rank =
|GDP_PPP_year = 2009
|GDP_PPP_per_capita = $12,526<ref name=imf2/>
|GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank =
|GDP_nominal = $8.761 billion<ref name=imf2/>
|GDP_nominal_year = 2009
|GDP_nominal_per_capita = $6,838<ref name=imf2/>
|HDI = {{increase}} 0.804
|HDI_rank = 81st
|HDI_year = 2007
|HDI_category = <span style="color:#090;">high</span>
|پېسه = [[Mauritian rupee]]
|د پېسو نښه = MUR
|country_code = 230
|د وخت سيمه = [[Mauritius Time|MUT]]
|utc_offset = +4
|time_zone_DST =
|utc_offset_DST = +5 (2008 only)<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/mauritius-daylight-saving-time.html |title=Mauritius turns the clock forward in October 2008 |publisher=Timeanddate.com |date= |accessdate=2010-07-04}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat.html |title=Mauritius will not repeat daylight saving time |publisher=Timeanddate.com |date= |accessdate=2010-07-04}}</ref>
|drives_on = left
|cctld = [[.mu]]
|پيل ګڼ = 230
|Dependencies=Rodrigues, [[Agalega Islands]]}}
 
{{ژباړل}}
'''Mauritius''' ([[IPA|pronounced:]] {{IPA|/məˈɹɪʃəs/}}; {{lang-fr|Maurice}} {{IPA|/mɔʀis/}}; [[Mauritian Creole]]: ''Moris''; Officially the '''Republic of Mauritius''' ([[French language|French]]: ''République de Maurice''), is an [[island nation]] in the southwest [[Indian Ocean]], about 900 kilometers<!--spelled out per WP:MOSNUM --> (560&nbsp;[[mile|mi]]) east of [[Madagascar]] and about 3,943 kilometers (2,450&nbsp;mi) southwest of India. In addition to the island of Mauritius, the republic includes the islands of [[Cargados Carajos|St. Brandon]], [[Rodrigues (island)|Rodrigues]] and the [[Agalega Islands]]. Mauritius is part of the [[Mascarene Islands]], with the [[France|French]] island of [[Réunion]] 200 kilometers (125&nbsp;mi) to the southwest.
 
== تاريخ ==
{{Main article|History of Mauritius}}
 
While [[Arab]] and [[Malay people|Malay]] [[sailor]]s knew of Mauritius as early as the 10th century and [[Portugal|Portuguese]] sailors first visited it in 1505, the island remained uninhabited until 1638 when it was colonized by the [[Netherlands|Dutch]]. They named the island in honour of Prince [[Maurice of Nassau]]. Due to climate changes, cyclones and the deterioration of the settlement, the Dutch abandoned the island some decades later. The [[France|French]] controlled the island during the 18th century and named it ''[[Ile de France]]'' (Isle of France). Despite winning the famous Battle of [[Grand Port|Grand-Port]], the French were defeated by the British in the north of the island, at Cap Malheureux (Cape of the Unlucky Ones), a month later, and thus lost possession to the [[United Kingdom|British]] in 1810 and the latter reverted the island to its former name.
 
In 1965, the United Kingdom split out the [[Chagos Archipelago]] from Mauritius to create the [[British Indian Ocean Territory]], in order to utilise the strategic islands for defence purposes in cooperation with the [[United States]]. Although the Government of Mauritius agreed to the move at the time, subsequent administrations have laid claim to the islands stating that the divestment was illegal under international law - claim recognised by the [[United Nations]].
 
[[دوتنه:Port Louis Mauritius Theatre.jpg|thumb|left|A postcard of Mauritius, Port Louis: Theatre, c.1900-1910]]
Independence was attained in 1968, with the country becoming a [[republic]] within the [[Commonwealth Republic|Commonwealth]] in 1992. Mauritius has been a stable [[democracy]] with regular free elections and a positive human rights record, and has attracted considerable foreign investment earning one of [[Africa]]'s highest per capita incomes.
 
Mauritius aims to become the business hub of the Indian Ocean. New business opportunities in banking and the technology sector are being actively sought.
 
== سياست ==
<!--Please add new information into relevant articles of the series-->
{{main|Politics of Mauritius}}
 
The [[head of state]] of Mauritius is the [[President of Mauritius|President]], who is elected for a five-year term by the National Assembly, the [[unicameral]] Mauritian [[parliament]]. The National Assembly consists of 62 members elected directly by popular vote, with between 4 and 8 further members appointed from "best losers" election candidates to represent ethnic minorities, depending on the results of the election. The government is headed by the [[prime minister]] and a council of ministers.
 
The most recent general elections took place on the [[3 July]] [[2005]] in all the 20 mainland constituencies, as well as the constituency covering the island of [[Rodrigues (island)|Rodrigues]].
 
Historically, elections have always adhered to a [[two-party system]] in Mauritius and this has also been the case this time, with the outgoing ''MSM/MMM/PMSD'' coalition against the PTr-led ''Alliance Sociale'' which includes PMXD, Les Verts, MR, MSD and MMSM.
 
The ''Alliance Sociale'' coalition won 38 seats and will form the next government with PTr leader Navinchandra Ramgoolam as Prime Minister. The MSM/MMM/PMSD coalition won 22 seats and will form the opposition. The 2 remaining seats for Rodrigues were won by OPR candidates. According to the Constitution, an additional eight seats were allocated to "best losers" to guarantee equitable representation of all ethnic groups. This brought the total representation to 42 ''Alliance Sociale'', 24 MSM/MMM/PMSD, and 4 OPR.
 
In international affairs, Mauritius is part of the [[Indian Ocean Commission]].
 
== اداري وېشنې ==
[[دوتنه:Mauritius districts numbered.svg|Thumb|right|250px|Districts of Mauritius]]
{{Main article|Districts and dependencies of Mauritius}}
 
The island of Mauritius itself is divided into 9 [[district]]s:
# [[Black River District, Mauritius|Black River]]
# [[Flacq]]
# [[Grand Port]]
# [[Moka District|Moka]]
# [[Pamplemousses]]
# [[Plaines Wilhems]]
# [[Port Louis District|Port Louis]]
# [[Rivière du Rempart]]
# [[Savanne]]
 
Dependencies of Mauritius:
 
* [[Rodrigues (island)|Rodrigues]], a populated island which used to be Mauritius's 10th district is now autonomous
* [[Agalega]] (two small islands about 933 kilometers (580&nbsp;mi) north of Mauritius)
* [[Cargados Carajos Shoals]] also known as the Saint Brandon islands (about 402 kilometers (250&nbsp;mi) north of Mauritius)
 
[[وېشنيزه:د افریقایي اتحادیه غړي هیوادونه]]
Note: Mauritius also claims the following islands:
[[وېشنيزه:ماوریتوس]]
[[دوتنه:Satellite image of Mauritius in February 2003.jpg|thumb|Satellite map of Mauritius]]
 
In French possession:
* [[Bassas da India]]
* [[Europa Island]]
* [[Glorioso Islands]]
* [[Juan de Nova Island]]
* [[Tromelin Island]]
In British possession:
* [[Chagos Archipelago]]
 
Other Mauritian Territories
 
* [[Soudan Banks]] (including East Soudan Bank)
* [[Nazareth Bank]]
* [[Saya de Malha Bank]]
 
== جغرافيه ==
[[دوتنه:Mauritius-CIA WFB Map.png|thumb|250px|Map of Mauritius]]
{{Main article|Geography of Mauritius}}
 
Together with [[Réunion]] and Rodrigues, Mauritius is part of the [[Mascarene Islands]]. This [[archipelago]] was formed in a series of undersea [[volcano|volcanic]] eruptions, as the [[African plate]] drifted over the [[Réunion hotspot]]. Mauritius and Rodrigues were formed 8-10 million years ago. They are no longer volcanically active, and the hotspot now rests under Réunion. The island of Mauritius itself is formed around a central plateau, with its highest peak in the southwest, [[Piton de la Petite Rivière Noire]] at 828 metres (2,717&nbsp;[[foot (unit of length)|ft]]). Around the plateau, the original crater can still be distinguished from several mountains.
 
The local [[climate]] is tropical, modified by southeast trade winds; there is a warm, dry winter from May to November and a hot, wet, and humid summer from November to May. [[Cyclones]] affect the country during November-April.
 
The island's capital and largest city is [[Port Louis, Mauritius|Port Louis]], in the northwest. Other important towns are [[Curepipe]], [[Vacoas]], [[Phoenix, Mauritius|Phoenix]], [[Quatre Bornes]], [[Rose-Hill]] and [[Beau-Bassin]].
 
The island is well known for its exceptional natural beauty; "You gather the idea that Mauritius was made first and then heaven, and that heaven was copied after Mauritius", as [[Mark Twain]] noted in ''[[Following the Equator]]''.
 
== اقتصاد ==
[[دوتنه:Port Louis Skyline.JPG|thumb|[[Port Louis]], capital of Mauritius]]
[[دوتنه:Pamplemousses.jpg|thumb|[[Pamplemousses Botanical Garden]], north of Port Louis]]
 
{{Main article|Economy of Mauritius}}
 
Since independence in 1968, Mauritius has developed from a low-income, [[agriculture|agriculturally]] based economy to a middle income diversified economy with growing industrial, financial, and [[tourism|tourist]] sectors. For most of the period, annual growth has been of the order of 5% to 6%. This remarkable achievement has been reflected in increased life expectancy, lowered infant mortality and a much improved [[infrastructure]].
 
Estimated at $16.28 billion for 2005, Mauritius has the 2nd highest GDP per capita in the whole of Africa. It is only exceeded by [[Equatorial Guinea]], which derives most of its revenue from oil exports. Mauritius on the other hand is a very mature economy with a great deal of wealth distribution among its citizens. The economy is mainly dependent on sugarcane plantations, tourism, textiles, and services, but other sectors are rapidly developing as well.
 
[[Sugar cane]] is grown on about 90% of the cultivated land area and accounts for 25% of export earnings. However, a record-setting drought severely damaged the sugar crop in 1999. The government's development strategy centres on foreign investment. Mauritius has attracted more than 9,000 offshore entities; many aimed at commerce in [[India]] and [[South Africa]] while investment in the [[banking]] sector alone has reached over USD 1 billion. Economic performance during the period from 2000 through 2004 combined strong economic growth with unemployment at 7.6% in December 2004.[[France]] is the countrys biggest trading partner ,and have close ties with the country ,they also provide technical assistance in various forms .
 
[[Financial Services]], Mauritius provides an ideal environment for banks, insurance and reinsurance companies, captive insurance managers, trading companies, ship owners or managers, fund managers and professionals to conduct their international business. The vibrant economic success achieved in the 1980s engendered the rapid growth of the financial services sector in Mauritius. The following types of offshore activities can be conducted in Mauritius:
* Offshore Banking
* Offshore Insurance
* Offshore Funds Management
* International Financial Services
* Operational Headquarters
* International Consultancy Services
* Shipping and Ship Management
* Aircraft Financing and Leasing
* International Licensing and Franchising
* International Data Processing and Information Technology Services
* Offshore Pension Funds
* International Trading
* International Assets Management
* International Assets Management
* International Employment Services
 
On [[4 April]] [[2005]] during his [http://mof.gov.mu/budget/20052006/speech.htm budget speech], Hon. Pravind Jugnauth, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance and Economic Development announced that Mauritius will become a [[duty-free]] island and that will take about 4 years. Duty has been decreased (and for many products completely eliminated) for more than 1850 products including clothing, food, jewelry, photographic equipment, audio visual equipment and lighting equipment.
 
The main motivations are (1) Attract more tourists going to [[Singapore]] and [[Dubai]], and, (2) Give all Mauritians easier access to quality products at affordable prices.
 
A plan by ADB Networks calls for Mauritius to become the first nation to have coast-to-coast [[Wi-Fi|wireless internet]] access. The wireless hot spot currently covers about 60% of the island and is accessible by about 70% of its population. By the end of 2006, antennas should provide access to 90% of the island.
 
Its biggest trading partners are France and UK.
 
Mauritius ranks first in respect of FDI inflows to India amongst all the countries with cumulative inflows amounting to US $ 10.98 billion. Top sectors attracting FDI inflows from Mauritius (from January 2000 to December, 2005) are electrical equipment, telecommunications, fuels, cement & gypsum products and services sector (financial & non-financial). (http://www.indlawnews.com/EC1844380C5E7E269C1E2116696BA40E)
 
== Demographics ==
{{Main article|Demographics of Mauritius}}
[[دوتنه:Maurice-plage.jpg|thumb|A beach from Mauritius]]
Mauritian society is highly multicultural. Island residents are the descendants of people from the [[South Asia|Indian subcontinent]], continental [[Africa]], [[Madagascar]], [[France]], [[England]], [[China]] plus a few other places.
The official language of Mauritius is [[English language|English]]. French dominates the media and business, radio and television, despite France having lost its colonial dominion over the island nearly 200 years ago. The French-derived [[Mauritian Creole]], with influences from the other dialects, is widely spoken (80%) on the island and is considered the [[lingua franca]] of the country. French and French creole is used in everyday life . Several other languages, including [[Arabic language|Arabic]], Indian languages such as [[Urdu]], [[Hindi]], [[Punjabi]], [[Tamil language|Tamil]], [[Telugu language|Telugu]], [[Marathi]], [[Bhojpuri]], [[Gujarati language|Gujarati]] or dialects of [[Chinese (linguistics)|Chinese]] like [[Cantonese (linguistics)|Cantonese]], [[Hakka]] and [[Mandarin (linguistics)|Mandarin]] are also spoken.
 
The latter [[South Asian]] languages are spoken by descendants of the labourers brought from [[British India]] during the British rule. The [[Indo-Mauritian]]s (when the ethnic groups are combined) form approximately 70% of the total population, while the rest of the population is of either [[Africa]]n, [[French people|French]], [[Sino-Mauritian|Chinese]], or mixed descent. There are approximately 30,000 Mauritians of Chinese descent, from Hakka, Mandarin and Cantonese language groups. More than 90% of the Sino-Mauritian community adhere to the Roman Catholic faith.
 
Of all religiously affiliated Mauritians, [[Hindu]]s constitute 52%, while the remainder is composed mostly of [[Christianity|Christians]] (28%) and [[Islam|Muslims]] (16.6%). Buddhists (2.5%), Sikhs (0.3%) and other religions are also followed.[http://www.gesource.ac.uk/worldguide/html/956_people.html]
 
== کلتور/فرهڼ ==
{{Main article|Culture of Mauritius}}
 
The mixed colonial past of Mauritius is reflected in its culture. For example, the [[cuisine]] of Mauritius is a blend of [[Indian Cuisine]], [[Creole cuisine|Creole]], [[Chinese cuisine|Chinese]] and [[European cuisine|European]]. It is not uncommon for a combination of cuisines to form part of the same meal. The "cari poule" or chicken curry, for example, is a very popular dish and eaten by all sections of the community. Mauritian Cuisine is a great leveller and brings together all sections of the community. Famous chefs on Mauritian Cuisine come from varied cultural backgrounds. Among the best known for traditional Mauritian Cuisine are Guy Felix, Lalita Sookhee, Philippe Lenoir, Raymond de Ravel, Madeleine Philippe and Zubeida Randera. Madeleine Philippe is well known for her promotion of Mauritian Cuisine on the internet. Most restaurants are owned by the [[Sino-Mauritian]] community, thus it is not surprising that well-known 'chinese' dishes have become Mauritian favourites. The "mine-frit" (Mauritian fried noodles) and "niouk nien" (dumplings) are loved by all and readily bought by the Mauritian community either in restaurants or on the sidewalks of main streets. Moreover, since the food stalls by the streets are mainly owned by the Muslim and [[Indo-Mauritian]] communities, the 'Alouda' (a milky drink with basil seeds) has become a typical mauritian drink and the 'dholl puri' is the favourite of all communities.
[[دوتنه:ExtinctDodoBird.jpeg|thumb|150px|Mauritius is the only known habitat of the extinct [[Dodo]] bird]]
In 1847, Mauritius became the fifth country in the world to issue [[postage stamp]]s. The two types of stamps issued then, known as the ''[[Red Penny]]'' and the ''[[Blue Penny]]'' are probably the most famous stamps in the world, being very rare and therefore also very expensive.
 
When discovered, the island of Mauritius was home to a previously unknown species of bird, which the Portuguese named the [[dodo]] (simpleton), as they appeared not too bright. However, by 1681, all dodos had been killed by settlers or their [[domesticated animal]]s. Nevertheless, the dodo is prominently featured as a [[supporter]] of the national [[coat-of-arms]] (see above).
 
Mauritius has from time to time also been chosen as setting for films, most of which are [[Bollywood]] productions from [[India]]. The latest Hindi film to feature Mauritius has been [[Garam Masala]] (2005).
 
== دا هم وګورۍ ==
=== د اقتصاد اړونده ===
* [[Communications in Mauritius]]
* [[Foreign relations of Mauritius]]
* [[Transport in Mauritius]]
** [[Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam International Airport]]
** [[Air Mauritius]] - National Airline
* [[Financial Services in Mauritius]]
 
=== زده کړې ===
* [[Education in Mauritius]]
* [[Tertiary education in Mauritius]]
* [[University of Technology, Mauritius]]
 
=== خلک او فرهڼ ===
* [[Indo-Mauritian]]
* [[Mauritian Creole People|Creole]]
* [[Sino-Mauritian]]
* [[Franco-Mauritian]]
* [[List of Mauritians|List of notable Mauritians]]
* [[Hinduism in Mauritius]]
* [[Islam in Mauritius]]
* [[Music of Mauritius]]
 
=== بېلابېل سرليکونه ===
* [[Military of Mauritius]]
* [[The Mauritius Scout Association]]
 
== نورې لوستنې ==
 
* Dodd, Jan and Madeleine Philippe. ''Lonely Planet Mauritius Reunion & Seychelles''. Lonely Planet Publications, 2004. ISBN 1-74059-301-4
 
* Lee, Jacques: "Mauritius: Its Creole Language - The Ultimate Creole Phrase Book and Dictionary"
Paperback 160 pages (August 15, 2005)
Publisher: Nautilus
ISBN 0-9511296-4-3
 
* Lee, Jacques: "Sega: The Mauritian Folk Dance"
Paperback 104 pages (December 1990)
Publisher: Nautilus
ISBN 0-9511296-1-9
 
== باندنۍ تړنې ==
{{sisterlinks|Mauritius}}
* [http://www.gov.mu/ Government of Mauritius] official government site
* {{wikitravel}}
* Entry on [https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/mp.html Mauritius] in the CIA World Factbook
* [http://www.alphavilla.info/ Mauritius travel and tourim guide]
----
{{Africa}}
[[وېشنيزه:African Union member states]]
[[وېشنيزه:Island nations]]
[[وېشنيزه:Mauritius| ]]
[[وېشنيزه:English-speaking countries]]
[[وېشنيزه:French-speaking countries]]
[[وېشنيزه:Francophonie]]
 
{{Link FA|sr}}
۷٬۷۹۰

سمونې