د "بوتسوانا" د بڼو تر مېنځ توپير

۱۹٬۲۳۳ ټکی لري شوه ،  ۹ کاله مخکې
د سمون لنډيز پرته
و (r2.7.2) (روباټ زیاتول: tk:Botswana)
'''بوټسوانا''' چې آر نوم یې '''د بوټسوانا جمهوریت''' دی په [[سویلي افریقا]] کې پروت یو هیواد دی.
{{هېواد-مالوماتبکس
|اصلي نوم = Lefatshe la Botswana
|عام نوم = Botswana
|بېرغ = Flag of Botswana.svg
|نښان = Arms of Botswana.svg
|نخشه = LocationBotswana.png
|national_motto = Pula (Let There Be Rain)''</big>
|ملي سرود = ''[[Fatshe leno la rona]]'' <br /> (Blessed Be This Noble Land)
|رسمي ژبه = [[English language|English]] (official), [[Setswana]] (national)
|پلازمېنه= [[Gaborone]]
|latd=24 |latm=40 |latNS=S |longd=25 |longm=55 |longEW=E
|لوی ښار=
|د حکومت بڼه = Parliamentary Republic <!-- cia.gov -->
|د لارښود لقب = [[President of Botswana|President]]
|د لارښود نوم = [[Festus Mogae]]
|area_rank = 44th
|د مساحت ارتوالی = 1 E11
|مساحت= 600,370
|areami²= 231,804 <!-- Do not remove per [[WP:MOSNUM]] -->
|د اوبو سلنه = 2.5%
|population_estimate = 1,573,267
|population_estimate_rank = 144th
|د وګړو د شمېر د اټکل کال = 2003
|د وګړو سرشمېرنه=
|د وګړو د سرشمېرنې کال=
|د وګړو ګڼه ګونه= 2.7
|د وګړو ګڼه ګونهmi² = 7.0
|population_density_rank = 189
|GDP_PPP = 16,640 <!-- cia.gov -->
|GDP_PPP_rank = 120th <!-- cia.gov -->
|GDP_PPP_year= 2005 <!-- cia.gov -->
|GDP_PPP_per_capita = 10,169
|GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 64th
|زمکنۍ بشپړتيا = [[خپلواکي]]
|established_events = From [[United Kingdom|UK]]
|established_dates = [[September 30]], [[1966]]
|HDI = 0.565
|HDI_rank = 131st
|HDI_year = 2003
|HDI_category = <font color="#FFCC00">medium</font>
|پېسه= [[Pula (currency)|Pula]]
|currency_code = BWP
|هېوادنی کوډ =
|time_zone =
|utc_offset = +2
|time_zone_DST =
|utc_offset_DST =
|cctld = [[.bw]]
|پېل ګڼ = 267
|footnotes =
}}
The '''Republic of Botswana''' (''Lefatshe la Botswana'') is a [[landlocked]] nation in [[Southern Africa]]. Formerly the [[United Kingdom|British]] [[protectorate]] of [[Bechuanaland Protectorate|Bechuanaland]], Botswana adopted its new name after becoming [[Independence|independent]] within the [[Commonwealth of Nations|Commonwealth]] on [[September 30]], [[1966]]. It is bordered by [[سوېلي افريقا]] to the south, [[نېمبيا]] to the west, [[زېمبيا]] to the north, and [[زېمبابوې]] to the northeast. The economy, closely tied to South Africa's, is predominated by [[mining]], especially [[diamond]]s; [[cattle]]; and [[tourism]]. The country is named after its largest ethnic group, the [[Tswana]].
 
== تاريخ ==
{{main|History of Botswana}}
 
== جغرافيه ==
{{main|Geography of Botswana}}
 
Botswana is dominated by the [[Kalahari Desert]], which covers up to 70% of the land surface of the country. The [[Okavango Delta]], the world's largest inland delta, is in the Northwest. The [[Makgadikgadi Pan]], a large [[salt pan]] lies in the North.[[دوتنه:Botswana map.png|بټنوک|کيڼ|200px|Map of Botswana]]
[[دوتنه:Onkovango delta Botswana Afrika november 2004.jpg|بټنوک|کيڼ|200px|[[Okavango Delta]], Botswana]]
<br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
<br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
<br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
 
== اداري وېش ==
[[دوتنه:Botswana.geohive.gif|بټنوک|220px|ښي|[[Subnational|Districts of Botswana]].]]
{{main|Districts of Botswana}}
 
Botswana is divided into 9 [[district]]s and 28 sub-districts.
 
The [[Districts of Botswana|districts]] include: <br />
<ol>
<li>[[Central District (Botswana)|Central]]
<li>[[Ghanzi District|Ghanzi]]
<li>[[Kgalagadi District|Kgalagadi]]
<li>[[Kgatleng District|Kgatleng]]
<li>[[Kweneng District|Kweneng]]
<li>[[North-East District (Botswana)|North-East]]
<li>[[North-West District (Botswana)|North-West]]
<li>[[South-East District (Botswana)|South-East]]
<li>[[Southern District (Botswana)|Southern]]
</ol>
 
== اقتصاد ==
{{main|Economy of Botswana}}
Since independence, Botswana has had the fastest growth in [[per capita income]] in the world. [[Economic growth]] averaged over 9% per year from 1966 to 1999. The [[government]] has maintained a sound [[fiscal policy]], despite consecutive [[Deficit|budget deficits]] in 2002 and 2003, and a negligible level of [[External debt|foreign debt]]. It earned the highest sovereign [[credit rating]] in [[Africa]] and has stockpiled foreign exchange reserves (over $5.1 billion in 2003/2004) amounting to almost two and one half years of current imports. Botswana's impressive economic record has been built on the foundation of wisely using revenue generated from [[diamond]] [[mining]] to fuel economic development through prudent fiscal policies and a cautious [[foreign policy]]. [[Debswana]], the only [[list of diamond mines|diamond mining]] company operating in Botswana, is 50 % owned by the government and generates about half of all government revenues.
 
However, economic development spending was cut by 10 % in 2002-2003 as a result of recurring budget deficits and rising expenditure on [[healthcare]] services. Botswana has been hit very hard by the [[AIDS]] epidemic. Approximately one in three Batswana have HIV, giving Botswana the second highest HIV infection rate in the world after [[Swaziland]] [http://www.avert.org/aidsbotswana.htm]. The government recognizes that [[HIV]]/[[AIDS]] will affect the economy and is providing leadership and programs to combat the [[epidemic]], including free [[Antiretroviral drug|anti-retroviral treatment]] and a nation-wide Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission program.[[دوتنه:Botswana Family.jpg|بټنوک|ښي|200px|Indigenous peoples of Botswana]]
 
Some of Botswana's budget deficits can be traced to relatively high military expenditures (of roughly 4% of GDP in 2004, according to the CIA World Factbook), which some critics contend is unnecessary given the low likelihood of international conflict (though the Botswana government also makes use of these troops for multilateral operations and assistance efforts).
 
=== د شخصي څانګو پرمختګ او بهرني لګښتونه ===
Botswana seeks to further diversify its economy away from minerals, which account for a third of GDP, down from nearly half of GDP in the early 1990's. Foreign investment and management are welcomed in Botswana. Botswana abolished foreign exchange controls in 1999, has a low corporate tax rate (15%), no prohibitions on foreign ownership of companies, and a moderate inflation rate (7.6% November 2004). The Government of Botswana is currently considering additional policies to enhance competitiveness, including a new Foreign Direct Investment Strategy, Competition Policy, Privatisation Master Plan, and National Export Development Strategy.
 
With its proven record of good economic governance, Botswana was ranked as Africa's least corrupt country by [[Transparency International]] in 2004, ahead of many European and Asian countries. The World Economic Forum rates Botswana as one of the two most economically competitive nations in Africa. In 2004 Botswana was once again assigned "A" grade credit ratings by [[Moody's]] and [[Standard & Poor's]]. This ranks Botswana as by far the best credit risk in Africa and puts it on par with or above many countries in central Europe, East Asia, and Latin America.[[دوتنه:Botswana1987Kidsrain.jpg|بټنوک|ښي|250px|Palapye children, 1987, after the first rain for years.]]
 
U.S. investment in Botswana remains at relatively low levels, but continues to grow. Major U.S. corporations, such as [[H.J. Heinz]] and [[AON Corporation]], are present through direct investments, while others, such as [[Kentucky Fried Chicken]] and [[Remax]], are present via franchise. The sovereign credit ratings by Moody's and Standard & Poor's clearly indicate that, despite continued challenges such as small market size, landlocked location, and cumbersome bureaucratic processes, Botswana remains one of the best investment opportunities in the developing world. Botswana has a 90-member American Business Council that accepts membership from American-affiliated companies.
 
[[دوتنه:BotswanaSeroweWaterhole.jpg|بټنوک|ښي|200px|Cattle at a water hole near Serowe]]
 
Because of history and geography, Botswana has long had deep ties to the economy of [[South Africa]]. The [[Southern Africa Customs Union]] (SACU), comprising Botswana, [[Lesotho]], [[Swaziland]], and South Africa, dates from 1910, and is the world’s oldest customs union. [[Namibia]] joined in 1990. Under this arrangement, South Africa has collected [[levies]] from customs, sales, and excise duties for all five members, sharing out proceeds based on each country's portion of imports. The exact formula for sharing revenues and the decision-making authority over duties — held exclusively by the Government of South Africa — became increasingly controversial, and the members renegotiated the arrangement in 2001. The new structure has now been formally ratified and a SACU Secretariat has been established in [[Windhoek]], Namibia. Following South Africa's accession to the [[World Trade Organization]] (WTO), Botswana also joined; many of the SACU duties are thus declining, making products from outside the area more competitive in Botswana. Currently the SACU countries and the U.S. are negotiating a free trade agreement. Botswana is currently also negotiating a free trade agreement with [[Mercosur]] and an Economic Partnership Agreement with the [[European Union]] as part of SADC.
 
[[وېشنيزه:د افریقایي اتحادیه غړي هیوادونه]]
Botswana's currency — the [[Pula (currency)|Pula]] — is fully convertible and is valued against a basket of currencies heavily weighted toward the South African [[Rand (currency)|Rand]]. Profits and direct investment can be repatriated without restriction from Botswana. The Botswana Government eliminated all exchange controls in 1999. The Central Bank devalued the Pula by 7.5% in February 2004 in a bid to maintain export competitiveness against the real appreciation of the Pula. There was a further 12% devalution in May 2005 and the policy of a "crawling peg" was adopted.
[[وېشنيزه:بوټسوانا]]
 
[[وېشنيزه:په وچې پورې تړلي هیوادونه]]
Most (70%) of Botswana's electricity is imported from South Africa's [[Eskom]]. 80% of domestic production is concentrated in one plant, [[Morupule Power Station]] near [[Palapye]].
[http://www.miningweekly.co.za/min/sector/coal/?show=75117]
 
[[Gaborone]] is host to the headquarters of the 14 nation [[Southern African Development Community]] (SADC), a successor to the [[Southern African Development Coordination Conference]](SADCC-launched in 1980), which focused its efforts on freeing regional economic development from dependence on apartheid South Africa. SADC embraced the newly democratic South Africa as a member in 1994 and has a broad mandate to encourage growth, development, and economic integration in Southern Africa. SADC's Trade Protocol, which was launched on September 1, 2000, calls for the elimination of all tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade by 2008 among the 11 signatory countries. If successful, it will give Botswana companies free access to the far larger regional market. SADC's failure to distance itself from the [[Robert Mugabe|Mugabe]] government in [[Zimbabwe]] has diminished the number of opportunities for cooperation between the U.S. and SADC.
 
=== د سيمه ايزې سوداګرۍ لپاره د حکومت پانګه اچونه ===
In 1996, the government set up the FAP (Financial Assistance Policy), the purpose of which was to help citizens set up businesses, and thus encourage employment and diversification of industry. This has undergone several revisions due to the need for a a balance between an easy to understand policy, and the need for fraud prevention. The policy is currently known as CEDA(Citizens Entrepeneurial Development Association) *[http://www.mti.gov.bw/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=21&Itemid=54&lang=en ]
 
=== Transport and communications ===
Despite being a sparsely populated, semi-arid country about the size of [[Texas]] or [[France]], Botswana has managed to incorporate much of its interior into the national economy. An "inner circle" highway connecting all major towns and district capitals is completely paved, and the all-weather [[Trans-Kalahari Highway]] connects the country (and, through it, South Africa's commercially dominant [[Gauteng Province]]) to [[Walvis Bay]] in Namibia. A [[fiber-optic]] telecommunications network has been completed in Botswana connecting all major population centers. In November, 2003 representatives of Botswana, Namibia and South Africa signed an MOU to simplify documentation to move cargoes to and from the Port of Walvis Bay in Namibia.
 
International flights usually arrive at [[Sir Seretse Khama International Airport]] just outside Gaborone.
 
In addition to the government-owned newspaper and national radio network, there is an active, independent press (seven weekly newspapers). Two privately owned radio stations began operations in 1999. In 2000, the government-owned Botswana Television (BTV) was launched, which is Botswana's first national television station. GBC is a commercially owned television station that broadcast programs to the Gaborone area only. Foreign publications are sold without restriction in Botswana, and there are 18 commercial Internet service providers. Two cellular phone providers cover most of the country.
 
In 2006, an electrified railway connecting Botswana and [[Lüderitz]], [[Namibia]] was proposed to carry coal and other minerals.
 
[[دوتنه:In the delta with George.jpg|بټنوک|ښي| Mokoro poler in the Okavango Delta]]
 
=== ګرځندويي ===
Tourism plays a role in Botswana. A number of national parks and game reserves, with their abundant wildlife, are a top draw for tourists.
 
== کارګر ==
Botswana is in the process or formulating an Action Programme on the Elimination of [[Child labour in Botswana|Child Labour]], which is expected to be adopted in the period 2006-2007.
 
== Defense ==
At the time of independence Botswana had no armed forces. It was only after attacks from the Rhodesian army that Botswana formed a [[Botswana Defence Force]] (BDF) in self-defence in [[1977]]. The [[President of Botswana|president]] is commander in chief and a defence council is appointed by the president. The BDF now has approximately 12,000 members.
 
The BDF is a capable and well-disciplined military force. Following positive political changes in [[South Africa]] and the region, the BDF's missions have increasingly focused on anti-poaching activities, disaster-preparedness, and foreign peacekeeping. The United States has been the largest single foreign contributor to the development of the BDF, and a large segment of its officer corps has received U.S. training. It is considered an apolitical and professional institution.
 
== Foreign relations ==
Botswana puts a premium on economic and political integration in Southern Africa. It seeks to make SADC a working vehicle for economic development, and promotes efforts to make the region self-policing in terms of preventative diplomacy, conflict resolution, and good governance. It has welcomed post-apartheid South Africa as a partner in these efforts. Botswana joins the African [[consensus]] on most major international matters and is a member of international organisations such as the [[United Nations]], the [[Commonwealth of Nations]] and the [[African Union]] (AU).
 
== Demographics ==
{{main|Demographics of Botswana}}
 
== Culture ==
{{main|Culture of Botswana}}
 
''See also'': [[List of African writers (by country)#Botswana|List of writers from Botswana]], [[African art#Botswana|Art of Botswana]]
{| border="2" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="0" style="margin: 1em 1em 1em 0; background: #f9f9f9; border: 1px #aaa solid; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%;"
<CAPTION><font size="+1">'''Holidays'''</font></caption>
|-
! style="background:#efefef;" | Date
! style="background:#efefef;" | English Name
! style="background:#efefef;" | Local Name
! style="background:#efefef;" | Remarks
|-
| [[January 1]] || [[New Year's Day]] || -
| &nbsp;
|-
| [[January 2]] || Public Holiday || - |
| -
|-
| (varies, usually in late March or early April) || [[Good Friday]]
| - || -
|-
| (varies, usually in late March or early April) || [[Easter Monday]]
| - || -
|-
| (varies, usually in May) || [[Ascension Day]] || -
| -
|-
| [[July 1]]
| [[Seretse Khama|Sir Seretse Khama]] Day
| - || -
|-
| [[July 19]] || President's Day || - || -
|-
| [[July 20]] || Public Holiday || - || -
|-
| [[December 25]] || [[Christmas]] day || - || -
|-
| [[December 26]] || [[Boxing day]] || - ||-
|-
| first Monday after Christmas || Public Holiday
| - || -
|}
 
== Main population centres (in descending order) ==
Cities:
* [[Gaborone]]
* [[Francistown]]
 
Towns and villages:
* [[Molepolole]]
* [[Selebi-Phikwe, Botswana|Selebi-Phikwe]]
* [[Maun]]
* [[Serowe, Botswana|Serowe]]
* [[Kanye, Botswana|Kanye]]
* [[Mahalapye]]
* [[Mochudi]]
* [[Mogoditshane]]
* [[Lobatse]]
* [[Palapye]]
* [[Tlokweng]]
* [[Ramotswa, Botswana|Ramotswa]]
* [[Thamaga]]
* [[Moshupa]]
* [[Tonota]]
* [[Jwaneng]]
* [[Orapa]]
* [[Letlhakane]]
 
== Education ==
{{main|Education in Botswana}}
 
== Miscellaneous topics ==
* [[Communications in Botswana]]
* [[Foreign relations of Botswana]]
* [[History of Botswana]]
* [[Military of Botswana]]
* [[Transportation in Botswana]]
 
 
 
== External links ==
{{sisterlinks|Botswana}}
 
=== Government ===
* [http://www.gov.bw/home.html The Republic Of Botswana] official government site
* [http://www.gov.bw/government/the_parliament.html The Parliament of Botswana] official site
* [http://www.rulers.org/rulb1.html#botswana Rulers.org —Botswana] List of rulers for Botswana
* [http://www.gov.bw/government/office_of_auditor_general.html Supreme Audit Institution] Botswana Audit Office
 
=== News ===
* [http://www.gov.bw/cgi-bin/news.cgi/ Daily News] Government of Botswana newspaper
* [http://allafrica.com/botswana/ allAfrica - Botswana] news headline links
* [http://www.gazette.bw/ The Botswana Gazette] independent mid-week newspaper
* [http://www.mmegi.bw/ Mmegi] independent weekly newspaper
* [http://www.botswanaguardian.co.bw/ The Botswana Guardian] Independent weekly newspaper
* [http://www.thevoicebw.com/ The Voice] Independent weekly newspaper
* [http://www.midweeksun.co.bw/ Midweek sun] Independent mid-week newspaper
* [http://www.ngamitimes.com/ The Ngami Times] Ngamiland's weekly newspaper
 
=== Overviews ===
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/country_profiles/1068674.stm BBC News - ''Country Profile: Botswana'']
* [http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/bc.html CIA World Factbook - ''Botswana'']
 
=== Directories ===
* [http://dmoz.org/Regional/Africa/Botswana/ Open Directory Project - ''Botswana''] directory category
* [http://www-sul.stanford.edu/depts/ssrg/africa/bots.html Stanford University - Africa South of the Sahara: ''Botswana''] directory category
* [http://www.afrika.no/index/Countries/Botswana/index.html The Index on Africa - ''Botswana''] directory category
* [http://www.sas.upenn.edu/African_Studies/Country_Specific/Botswana.html University of Pennsylvania - African Studies Center: ''Botswana''] directory category
* [http://dir.yahoo.com/Regional/Countries/Botswana/ Yahoo! - ''Botswana''] directory category
 
=== Tourism ===
* [http://www.airbotswana.co.uk/ Air Botswana UK - The national airline]
* {{wikitravel}}
 
=== Other ===
* [http://www.photos-botswana.com Photos from Botswana]
 
 
{{Africa}}
 
[[وېشنيزه:African Union member states]]
[[وېشنيزه:Botswana|*]]
[[وېشنيزه:Landlocked countries]]
 
[[ace:Botswana]]
۷٬۷۹۰

سمونې