اېربيوم (په انگرېزي: Erbium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Er سمبول او ۶۸ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

Erbium,  68Er
Erbium-crop.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈɜrbiəm/
UR-bee-əm
Appearancesilvery white
Erbium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


Er

Fm
holmiumerbiumthulium
اټومي شمیره (Z)68
گروپ, پیریودgroup n/a, period 6
بلاکf-block
Element category  lanthanide
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f12 6s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 30, 8, 2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى1802 K ​(1529 °C, ​2784 °F)
يشنا ټکی3141 K ​(2868 °C, ​5194 °F)
Density near r.t.9.066 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.8.86 g/cm3
Heat of fusion19.90 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization280 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity28.12 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1504 1663 (1885) (2163) (2552) (3132)
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states3, 2, 1 ​(a basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.24
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 589.3 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1150 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2194 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 176 pm
Covalent radius189±6 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for erbium
Speed of sound thin rod2830 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansionpoly: 12.2 µm/(m·K) (r.t.)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه14.5 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivitypoly: 0.860 µΩ·m (r.t.)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic at 300 K
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol)+44,300.00·10−6 cm3/mol[۲]
Young's modulus69.9 GPa
Shear modulus28.3 GPa
Bulk modulus44.4 GPa
Poisson ratio0.237
Vickers hardness430–700 MPa
Brinell hardness600–1070 MPa
CAS Number7440-52-0
History
Namingafter Ytterby (Sweden), where it was mined
DiscoveryCarl Gustaf Mosander (1842)
Main isotopes of erbium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
160Er syn 28.58 h ε 160Ho
162Er 0.139% stable
164Er 1.601% stable
165Er syn 10.36 h ε 165Ho
166Er 33.503% stable
167Er 22.869% stable
168Er 26.978% stable
169Er syn 9.4 d β 169Tm
170Er 14.910% stable
171Er syn 7.516 h β 171Tm
172Er syn 49.3 h β 172Tm
| references | in Wikidata

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سرچينېسمول

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. د کتاب پاڼي E110. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0464-4. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)

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